The Evolution of Everything Summary

The Evolution of Everything Summary

How New Ideas Emerge, aka How Small Things Transform the World

By now, you already know that evolution is how all life came to be on this planet. What you don’t know is that evolution may be responsible for everything else, whether it’s language or government.

Don’t believe us?

Why don’t we just let Matt Ridley tell you a thing or two.

Who Should Read “The Evolution of Everything”? And Why?

Good ideas don’t just happen in isolation. There are so many things which contribute to their formulation and even more which turn them into theories and trends. Matt Ridley claims that this happens haphazardly, in an unplanned manner.

And you should give heed to his words if you want to know more about how the present world was shaped. It would make an even better read if you like to read about evolution and similar concepts. But, be warned: don’t come unprepared for this trip.

About Matt Ridley

Matt RidleyMatt Ridley is a British biologist and writer, a peer in the House of Lords since 2013. He obtained his Ph.D. in zoology in 1983, before becoming a science editor for “The Economist” and a regular columnist for “The Telegraph.”

He has written several well-received scientific books, including “The Red Queen,” and “The Rational Optimist.”

“The Evolution of Everything Summary”

For the most part of human history, the majority of people genuinely believed that a supreme being created the universe. After all, everything looked so orderly and beautiful that this seemed like a no-brainer.!

In fact, when Isaac Newton formulated the laws of motion and gravitation, he was convinced that he had uncovered the ultimate evidence of intelligent design. If the universe worked like a clockwork mechanism, then it’s only natural that we supposed that someone had built this machine.

His name: God. The Ultimate Watchmaker.

But, about two centuries ago, an unexpected thing happened. Namely, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace uncovered something even more fascinating than God. They found evidence that the natural world, with all its beauty and complexity, created itself, through an ages-long process of “trial and error.”

Its name: Natural Selection. The Blind Watchmaker.

And this changed everything.

Suddenly, we started seeing patterns and realized that the theory of evolution can be applied to many fields of human knowledge.

And Matt Ridley isn’t a kind of person who would argue this. After all, just look at the title of his book! He can’t get enough of evolution. His argument: because that’s the way everything works. Yes, that includes society as well!

We think we have some control over the processes which govern progress – but, no, we don’t! Just like each and every species, everything we see around us evolves in an incremental, unplanned manner.

Everything? Really?

It can’t be!

Yes, it can. A quick glance at the contents of Ridley’s book shows that he intends to stop at nothing! “The Evolution of Everything” comprises of a prologue and an epilogue and sixteen standalone chapters, which cover the evolution of… well, everything.

The universe, the life, genes – OK, that’s physics and biology and pretty much expected! The economy, the education, the government – I see your point, and you can make a case of it. But, leadership, culture, religion – even these?

And what about personality, morality, the mind? Now, you’ve got to be kidding me!

And yes, even technology and the Internet.

Wait a minute, you say?

But, you just mentioned Darwin, Wallace, Newton! You want me to believe that they didn’t do nothing special. You can’t possibly be saying that! After all, they were great men, and, if nothing else, they are responsible for some giant evolutionary leaps!

You’ve got to give me that, at least.

But, Matt Ridley is merciless. As exceptional as they may seem to you – he says triumphantly – they were nothing more but a case of the right person at the right time. In other words, the theories of gravity and evolution would have been formulated by someone else if not by one of these three.

But, how do we know it?

Well, consider something historians of science refer to as “simultaneous invention.” It happens so often that hardly any Nobel Prize (other than the one in literature) is awarded to a single person. Some scientists, however, have gone a step further. They hypothesize that “multiple discoveries” happen not only often, but every time.

Here are some examples for you that are sure to make you wonder!

Have you ever wondered, say, how is it possible that the blast furnace or the crossbow were developed independently in China, Africa, and Europe? Or how did all of Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Joseph Priestley, and Antoine Lavoisier discovered oxygen at around the same time in three different countries? What about evolution, and Darwin and Wallace?

And Ridley has one even better: in the 1870s, no less than 23 people around the globe worked on inventing the light bulb!

You know why?

Because all of the basic elements (glass, electricity, vacuum, and filaments) were there, and because, in Ridley’s opinion, an invention is not exactly a leap, but a recombination. Albert Einstein was the first one to conceptualize the theory of relativity, but had he didn’t, Hendrik Lorentz would have been a name you’d hear much more often.

Because the world was prepared for such a theory.

Now, don’t get us – and Ridley – wrong!

The powerful will always be able to influence the weak. In many cases, they can do just about enough to hurdle things past the tipping point and cause an avalanche of extraordinary events.

However, this doesn’t happen as often as history books – and Malcolm Gladwell – would have us believe.

Quite the opposite: just like God did once, great men receive too much credit. Moreover, we would have been better off without them: just as Lord Acton once wrote, “great men are almost always bad men.”

In other words: they are just interfering with an evolution of everything which tends to make things better.

They are not great suns who lighten up the world. They are much more akin to earthquakes or avalanches.

We’ll adapt either way.

Nobody, but the blind watchmaker knows how.

Key Lessons from “The Evolution of Everything”

1.      Positive Trends Are Products of Evolution
2.      All Inventions Were Inevitable
3.      Enough with the Great Men

Positive Trends Are Products of Evolution

You can plan a thing as much as you like to – it won’t happen unless it was meant to be. Or you can just leave evolution do its work – and hope for the best.

Because, in the long run, the best will come. Step-by-step bottom-up progress is Matt Ridley’s vision of the history of everything, whether it’s the Industrial Revolution or the reduction of science and poverty.

It will happen ­– when the time comes.

All Inventions Were Inevitable

You may think of Isaac Newton and Charles Darwin as scientists who knew so much more than the rest of the world in their heyday, but – news flash – it isn’t so! Did you know, for example, that Gottfried Leibnitz developed the calculus simultaneously with (or even before) Newton?

And that Darwin received a letter from Alfred Russel Wallace explicating the whole theory of evolution while he was working on the publication of “The Origin of Species”?

These are not isolated cases. Inventions because the time was right. And because of the Zeitgeist. Not because of the great people who we celebrate.

That’s why…

Enough with the Great Men

Just like God did for most of human history, the great men we learn about receive just too much credit.

If anything, most of them were a nuisance, impeding the gradual process of bottom-up evolution which got us to where we are. Our world wouldn’t have been that much different even without Thomas Edison and Albert Einstein. Sooner or later, someone else would have discovered what they did.

But, how much more beautiful it would have been without Alexander the Great or Hitler?

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“The Evolution of Everything” Quotes

Change in human institutions, artefacts and habits is incremental, inexorable and inevitable. Click To Tweet If there is one dominant myth about the world, one huge mistake we all make, one blind spot, it is that we all go around assuming the world is much more of a planned place than it is. Click To Tweet We describe the world as if people and institutions were always in charge, when often they are not. Click To Tweet Today we are still in thrall to Great Man history, if only because we like reading biography. Click To Tweet For far too long we have underestimated the power of spontaneous, organic and constructive change driven from below, in our obsession with designing change from above. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

“The Evolution of Everything” is a modern, more nuanced and better researched version of Herbert Spencer’s theory of social Darwinism. It’s an ambitious undertaking, since it covers everything from the universe to the Internet, from language and the mind to morality and personality.

To say that, even so, it doesn’t disappoint would be an understatement. It’s nothing short of brilliant. It’s, however, intended for analytical, well-read readers with a wide-ranging knowledge and a deep focus, so it may not be everyone’s cup of tea. After all, each chapter of the book begins with a quote by Lucretius.

If you don’t know him – don’t bother. Because he may be the least of your problems.

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The One Minute Manager Summary

The One Minute Manager Summary

The Quickest Way to Increase Your Own Prosperity


In how many ways can you improve your life during the next 60 seconds?

Quite a few, it seems. (And you’ll still have one second left.)

Ready to learn a few more?

The One Minute Manager” is here just for you. Its title is no exaggeration: it aims to make you a better manager by taking just a minute of your time. (Or, better yet, three or four one-minute series).

Kenneth Blanchard and Spencer Johnson are considerate towards your schedule in one more manner. The book is fairly short, and even reading it from start to finish won’t take too much of your time.

But, as always, we can do one better.

Because we have the summary.

Who Should Read “The One Minute Manager”? And Why?

The One Minute Manager” has been lauded by so many people that not few have deemed it a classic. One of the essential books on managements. Management 101.

So, to quote American television host and media mogul Merv Griffin, – “don’t miss it.” If you’re a manager, that is. Because to everyone else, the book may seem like not much more than a very bad novel.

About Kenneth Blanchard and Spencer Johnson

Kenneth BlanchardKenneth Blanchard, Ph.D., is an American trainer, writer and management and leadership expert. After receiving an MA in sociology and counseling from the Colgate University in 1963, he obtained his Ph.D. in leadership from Cornell four years later.

He has – usually, co-authored – more than 60 books, many of which have become bestsellers. He is currently the Chief Spiritual Officer of the Ken Blanchard Companies.

Spencer JohnsonSpencer Johnson, MA, was an American physician and writer, primarily known for the 43-volume ValueTales series of biographical children’s books, of which he wrote almost half.

He also authored the highly influential business fable, “Who Moved My Cheese?” which has sold almost 30 million copies worldwide and is translated in no less than 40 languages.

“The One Minute Manager Summary”

The One Minute Manager” takes the form of a fable.

It tells the story of a bright young man who is looking for an effective manager.

He meets a manager after manager and he’s disappointed by all. Some are too autocratic, favoring results over people. Others are just too democratic and nice, preferring their employees over the results.

Is there not some middle ground, he wonders?

Of course, there is. And he finds it in the eponymous “One Minute Manager”.

The one-minute manager teaches the bright young man that people and results are not separated concepts. And that only people who feel good about themselves can and will produce good results.

But, how should a manager make his employees feel good about themselves and their job? In other words, how can he utilize their full potential while not using them?

Quite simply, in fact. Just by applying three one-minute methods.

First and foremost, the one-minute goal setting. Its basic idea is that 20% of your goals produce about 80% of your results. Listing them all may confuse your employees about their priorities. Listing only few at a maximum one page will be enough.

So, select just three to six goals and communicate them to your employees. Explain to them politely and nicely that you will expect some results and that you’ll hold them accountable in their absence.

And wait for the magic to happen.

Next, comes the one-minute praising. If someone does his job good, he needs to feel deep inside that he has accomplished something. After all, if he’s held accountable for not meeting the expected goals, why shouldn’t he receive something in return for meeting them.

So, praise the employees who do a good job. The rookies love the feedbacks. And they will do an even better job next time around.

Now, don’t be fooled! Not everyone will take you seriously the first time.

And that leads us to the third and final one-minute method: the one-minute reprimand.

Don’t overreact when someone does something bad. Just like you shouldn’t exaggerate in your praises when he does something good. Give him or her the chance to correct himself. But, be fair and tell him where and how he should do this.

So, quickly but precisely tell the worker who hasn’t met his goals what he has done wrongly. And don’t let him feel as if you’re not valuing him.

Results will come a plenty. And it will only take you three minutes of your day.

Key Lessons from “The One Minute Manager”

1.      Three Minutes (and Techniques) to Greatness
2.      Stop your “NIHYSOB” behavior
3.      Conditioning Your Employees’ Behavior

Three Minutes (and Techniques) to Greatness

The mythical “One Minute Manager” from Blanchard’s and Johnson’s story is actually a three-minute manager. But, never mind: their point remains the same.

In a nutshell, it’s based around the idea that in a fast-paced society, you’ll have to make time stop at least three times during each day.

Once, for a minute, to set the most important three goals for your employees. Second time, to praise the ones who’ll meet them in no more than 60 seconds. And a final, third time, to reprimand those who won’t. Quickly, precisely, and politely.

Stop your “NIHYSOB” behavior

Most managers think that their job is to catch their employees doing something bad. Blanchard and Johnson call this style of managing the NIHYSOB behavior. NIHYSOB is an acronym for “Now, I have you…” – well, you know what the SOB stands for.

And that is not what your employees are.

So, in the future, try to catch them doing something good. And praise them. Feedbacks go a long way. Just as compliments.

Conditioning Your Employees’ Behavior

Even though Blanchard and Johnson claim that your employes are not SOBs, basically, the one-minute manager still feels like kind of a modernized version of Ivan Pavlov. Remember him? He thought dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell.

Blanchard and Johnson believe that this will work for your employees too. If done correctly. And gently. Maybe it will, who knows! After all, we are animals.

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“The One Minute Manager” Quotes

The One Minute Manager’s symbol is intended to remind each of us to take a minute out of our day to look into the faces of the people we manage. And to realize that they are our most important resources. Click To Tweet Everyone is a potential winner. Some people are disguised as losers. Don’t let their appearances fool you. Click To Tweet Take a minute! Look at your goals! Look at your performance! See if your behavior matches your goals. Click To Tweet We are not just our behavior; we are the person managing our behavior. Click To Tweet Goals begin behaviors; consequences maintain behaviors. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

“The One Minute Manager” was a sleeper hit in the 1980s. Amounting to no more than 100 pages, and going over just few practical advices, the book sold more than 10 million copies worldwide. We guess the people loved the allegorical approach and the straightforward writing, giving them an opportunity to read the whole book in the space of an hour, remembering almost all of it.

Now, who wouldn’t want that?

However, at least in the eyes of the more serious readers, the book hasn’t aged that well. Soon after becoming a bestseller, it was exposed by “The Wall Street Journal” as a heavily plagiarized version of an article by Arthur Elliott Carlisle, an University professor.

And if that wasn’t enough, in the meantime, managers started complaining that its tactics don’t really work in any other environment but the optimal. Simply put, the distraction-full fast-paced 21st century wasn’t going to allow managers to structure it in a minute or so.

So, reading “The One Minute Manager” nowadays is nothing more but a case of nostalgia. Peering into history to learn nothing about how to make your future better. And Blanchard and Johnson would be the first to agree: in 2015, they wrote “The New One Minute Manager.”

They knew the book needed an update.

But, that’s a topic for another summary.

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Shoe Dog Summary

Shoe Dog Summary

A Memoir by the Creator of Nike

If you’ve set your mind on becoming an entrepreneur, Phil Hampson Knight is a name you should probably know by now. After all, in terms of net worth, he’s not that far from Zuckerberg, or Brin and Page! In fact, he’s the 28th richest person in the world!

And if that’s not enough, there’s a big chance that you’ll wear his snickers later tonight.

Of course, we’re talking about Nike’s co-founder.

In his own words.

Summarized, to be fair.

Who Should Read “Shoe Dog”? And Why?

As its subtitle so succinctly states, “Shoe Dog” is a memoir written by the creator of “Nike” himself. And if that’s not an advertisement enough, the book is also a “New York Times” bestseller.

All in all, a must-read for anyone who is interested to master the world of business, or to read another old-fashioned rags to riches story. (Or, if you allow, a quite modern “from $50 to $29.1B tale.”)

Two things to be wary of, though. First of all, the book is not exactly a book brimming with practical advices. And secondly, it’s much more personal than you would expect, mainly dealing with the early part of Phil Knight’s career.

But, ultimately, whether you’re launching a business or daydreaming about it, there’s something for everyone in here.

About Phil Knight

Phil KnightPhil Knight is the co-founder of Nike, Inc., the world’s largest athletic shoes supplier.

He acted as the company’s CEO for four decades between 1964 and 2004, serving as board chairman until 2016. He is the current Chairman Emeritus of Nike, and an owner of the stop-motion animation studio, Laika.

In addition, he’s Oregon’s most generous philanthropist in history, donating over $2 billion for his hometown.

Shoe Dog” – translated often as “The Mark of Victory” and available in a Young Readers edition as well – is his first and, so far, only book.

“Shoe Dog Summary”

This is a book of memories.

And, as it usually happens with them due to our faltering memory, they are not exactly structured or consequential. Writing them on paper does help, but Knight doesn’t make it easy for his readers, expecting them to know everything he does at all times.

Even more: supposing they’ll be able to remember all of the names and their noteworthiness when they appear 50 or so pages later.

But, a summary is a summary for a reason. So, let’s extract only the main parts of Phil Knight’s 1962-1980 biography. More or less, that makes his memoir a story of one name, two companies, and three people.

It’s 1962 and Phil Knight is on an after-graduation around-the-world trip. In November 1962, he visits the Onitsuka Company in Kobe, Japan. Fascinated by the quality of their shoes and, moreover, their affordability, he arranges a meeting with Onitsuka’s executives.

He tells them that he’s a representative of Blue Ribbon Sports and that he’s interested in buying the exclusive rights for distribution of Onitsuka’s Tiger shoes in western US.

But, what he doesn’t tell them is the more interesting part and the stuff entrepreneur’s dreams are made of.

You see, Blue Ribbon Sports is not exactly a company. It’s a business operated by Knight in his parents’ house. And he’s not exactly a representative: he is, basically, the company. Many years before “Pre-Suasion,” Knight pulls a trick out of Robert Cialdini’s books on influence. And he does a heck of a good job!

The first two pairs of Onitsuka Tiger shoes are mailed by Knight to Bill Bowerman in an attempt to get an endorsement. He is the second most important person in our story, a legendary track and field coach at the University of Oregon and trainer of more than 50 Olympians.

He is, also, the co-founder of Nike, Inc.

Because, once he receives the shoe samples Bowerman doesn’t merely want to endorse them – he wants to take a part in selling them!

Soon, business is blooming and Onitsuka Tiger stops looking at Blue Ribbon Sports as an ally, but as a competitor. Cue the long legal struggles, and Knight’s and Bowerman’s attempt at Plan B: if they can’t distribute high-quality low-cost athletic shoes, why shouldn’t they create them themselves?

Fortunately, Plan B turns out to be even better plan than Plan A. And it is all due to Knight’s entrepreneurship skills, and Bowerman’s innovator’s brain. Have you ever heard of the “Waffle Sole”? Well, Bowerman invented it.

And that’s how “Nike” was born.

Oh… we’re running ahead of ourselves.

That’s how a pair of great nameless shoes was designed. But, in order to be registered at the U.S. Patent Office, it had to have a name. It came into a dream of the first Blue Ribbon employee, Jeff Johnson, a day before the paperwork was filed.


And it sure trumped what Knight and Bowerman had come up with: Falconbengaldimensionsix. (OK, that’s few names jumbled into one, but you know how it is few hours before a deadline…)

And that’s where the third person enters the story: Steve Prefontaine. A runner and a superstar. The second athlete to endorse Nike – after Romanian tennis great Ilia Năstase – and the first American to do so.

His story is remarkable in itself and we strongly advise you to read it. In the context of Nike, Prefontaine will always be remembered as the man who paved the way for, say, the Air Jordans.

And the man who started a long list of Nike sponsorships.

You know, the thing that led to you buying that now coveted pair of Nikes.

Key Lessons from “Shoe Dog”

1.      “Ask, and It Shall Be Given You; Seek, and Ye Shall Find”
2.      Be as Zen as You Can Be…
3.      …And Never Quit

“Ask, and It Shall Be Given You; Seek, and Ye Shall Find”

Sure, the verse comes straight from the “New Testament,” but it’s also a sentence in any entrepreneur’s book! And Knight is no exception.

When he saw an opportunity with the Onitsuka Tiger shoes, he didn’t want to wait. He went there fearless, as a representative of a one-man company. It didn’t matter that Onitsuka was one of the oldest Japanese shoes factories.

It mattered that Knight wanted to create a future sports giant.

And he did.

Be as Zen as You Can Be…

When it comes to Knight’s personal philosophy, he’s an ardent believer in the power of Zen Buddhism. He has used it to overcome many obstacles and achieve his career goals. He firmly believes that his ego is his enemy, and he has often tried to do away with it in order to make better decision.

Knight claims that these tactics have worked for him every time. And there’s no reason why you shouldn’t believe him.

…And Keep Running

Winston Churchill once said: “If you’re going through hell, keep going.” Phil Knight thinks the very same. His words are somewhat different (read them in the “Quotes” section), but the moral is the same.

In his opinion, this is not only a good advice. It’s the best advice you can get.

And the only advice you really need.

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“Shoe Dog” Quotes

In the beginner’s mind there are many possibilities, but in the expert’s mind there are few. (epigraph, via Shunryu Suzuki) Click To Tweet Let everyone else call your idea crazy... just keep going. Don’t stop. Don’t even think about stopping until you get there, and don’t give much thought to where ‘there’ is. Whatever comes, just don’t stop. Click To Tweet I’d like to share the experience, the ups and downs, so that some young man or woman, somewhere, going through the same trials and ordeals, might be inspired or comforted. Or warned. Click To Tweet The harder you work, the better your Tao. Click To Tweet Have faith in yourself, but also have faith in faith. Not faith as others define it. Faith as you define it. Faith as faith defines itself in your heart. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

“Shoe Dog” is not exactly what you would expect from a book written by the most powerful person in the athletic shoe business. There’s neither flash nor tingles, neither overblown claims nor a juicy detail or two. So, if you’re looking for Super Bowl parties, or MJ contract stipulations – do yourself a favor, and look elsewhere.

But, if you’re looking for a more personal insight in the mind workings of a business magnate, you will probably find just about enough here. After all, Bill Gates endorses it! The book is divided into, more or less, standalone chapters detailing each year between 1962 and 1980, so you don’t even need to read the whole book – just the years of your own choosing.

Whether Knight plans a second part of his autobiography, dealing with the more extravagant part of his legacy is not known at the moment. If he does, we ‘re guessing that the book will be an instant bestseller.

This one, for better or for worse, offers just a peak inside the life of a remarkable, but, even after this book, still somewhat enigmatic kahuna.

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Originals Summary

Originals SummaryHow Non-Conformists Move The World

It is hard to be original when there is so much skepticism surrounding you.

In our summary of “Originals,” we show you how you can “package” your originality so others will see it. We cast a light on how tactical and strategic you have to be to thrive in an organization.

Who Should Read “Originals”? and Why?

In “Originals”, bestselling author, consultant and Wharton School professor Adam Grant raises the question of originality in the workplace. He explores the subject through a presentation of business histories, anecdotes and studies, that show how an original can thrive in an organization.

The truth is, even the most future-oriented companies are prone to resisting originality. Such is the case because the idea is not the only thing that is important – a good presentation is essential as well.

Grant motivates readers by giving them numerous examples of originals who somehow managed to turn their ideas into reality.

We recommend this book to all creative thinkers who still haven’t found a way to express their originality.

About Adam Grant

Adam Grant

Adam Grant is the Wharton School’s highest-rated professor and the youngest tenured faculty member. He is a former advertising director and a junior Olympian.

“Originals Summary”

Grant starts “Originals” by referring to the remarkable accomplishments of online eyeglass creator Warby Parker.

He shows his respect of the inventiveness of the organization’s founders, which were all Wharton students. The founders offered Grant an opportunity to contribute, before their launch.

However, he turned them down because Luxottica controlled over 80% of the eyeglass market. Hence, he did not feel that a group of students just starting out could profit.

Warby Parker, however, took a unique path. He allowed customers to buy glasses on the web and, if they did not like them, send them back.

Its launch was a great success.

The founders primarily thought they would offer three sets per day, yet they sold a year’s worth in less than a month and needed to create a 20,000 person waiting list.

Grant is genuine about his failure to invest. He observes it as his “worst financial decision” ever.

This book sprang from his wish to fathom his failure to grasp inventiveness when it was right in front of his nose.

Grant presents the delicacy of coalitions and shows that allied enemies can persevere through longer than one of the friendly back-stabbers, or how he calls them “frenemies.”

He furthermore utilizes the historical backdrop of the suffragette development as a significant example of the way adversaries concede their ill will but are willing to participate in common purposes.

Lucy Stone (1818-1893) was the first American woman to hold her original last name after marriage, the first Massachusetts woman to get a professional education and the first American that became a full-time speaker on women’s rights.

She published Woman’s Journal, which survived for half a century. Starting in 1853, Stone worked for 15 years with well known early women’s activists, Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

However, in 1869, Stone experienced a severe split from Anthony and Stanton.

They opened rival associations and published rival newspapers. After some time, Anthony and Stanton “wrote Stone out” of their coverage of the historical backdrop of women’s journey for the vote.

Grant reports that the issue that sundered Anthony and Stanton from Stone was African-American suffrage.

Anthony and Stanton figured it is out of line to give dark men a chance to vote when white women could not, so they did not accept suffrage for colored men. Furthermore, Anthony regarded Stone’s support for giving dark men the right to vote as a disloyalty to the women’s cause.

They never got together again and fought until the very end.

Grant utilizes their story to indicate why you should know your partners and maybe even believe them less than your adversaries, who, at least will show consistent behavior.

He cautions readers that in a partnership, particularly in a business one, shared objectives are not sufficient to keep the partners together.

Shared values are great to have, but you additionally should concur on procedures and strategies.

Key Lessons from “Originals”

1.      Get Prepared for Skepticism
2.      Two Roads to Success
3.      Embrace Your Flaws

Get Prepared for Skepticism

Being original in the business world is difficult.

Many original people present themselves and the ideas they come up with in a way that undermines their position in the eyes of others. They do not understand that most of the people they contact will be a skeptic.

Original thinkers must be prepared to encounter skepticism and be ready to defeat it.

Two Roads to Success

Simply put, you can take two routes to success: originality or conformity.

Conformity is being like everyone else.

Originality, on the other hand, is not merely having fresh ideas. That is only the beginning. To be original, you have to fight to bring those ideas into life.

Embrace Your Flaws

As we already discussed, people will regard you with skepticism and cynism. Most of the time the listeners to your pitchers will stand ready to attack. You will not get much encouragement from them. On the contrary, they will try to beat you down using every flaw they can find.

Originals are aware of it. So, to stay protected, embrace your flaws and explain to them to anyone else can. Mentioning only positive sides to people raises their skepticism.

Because, in the end, we all know that nothing is perfect, don’t we?

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“Originals” Quotes

In the deepest sense of the word, a friend is someone who sees more potential in you than you see in yourself, someone who helps you become the best version of yourself. Click To Tweet Argue like you’re right and listen like you’re wrong. Click To Tweet Practice makes perfect, but it doesn’t make new. Click To Tweet Being original doesn’t require being first. It just means being different and better. Click To Tweet To become original, you have to try something new, which means accepting some measure of risk. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

Most of the business authors usually provide exercises and workbooks at the end of each chapter, or they offer summarized steps that readers can take to practice what they learned.

However, Grant takes a fresh, original approach to giving readers the needed tools, by giving direct and workable guidance at the end of his captivating book “Originals”.

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Where Does It Hurt Summary

Where Does It Hurt SummaryAn Entrepreneur’s Guide to Fixing Health Care

Sick of going on those dreary hospital visits?

Not much you can do about the first part of that sentence! As long as you’re alive, you’ll have to visit your doctor from time to time.

But, there’s many things you can do about the dreariness of hospitals! Especially, if you’re an entrepreneur, current or would-be.

Where Does It Hurt?” is a book for you. And this summary is just the preview you need.

Who Should Read “Where Does It Hurt”? And Why?

“Where Does It Hurt?” targets at least three different groups of people.

In the first place, those who are in any way interested in the United States’ healthcare system. Secondly, those who are interested in business opportunities and practical business advice for the future.

Finally and especially, those who are both: entrepreneurs willing to disrupt and improve America’s healthcare system by launching medical start-ups in the recent future.

About Jonathan Bush and Stephen Baker

Jonathan BushJonathan S. Bush is an American entrepreneur, most famous as the cofounder and CEO of, a publicly traded company which provides digital apps and services for hospitals throughout the United States.

Stephen BakerStephen L. Baker is an American journalist and author. He has written articles for “The New York Times,” and “The Wall Street Journal,” in addition to few non-fiction books. He has also authored a novel, the techno-thriller, “The Boost.”

“Where Does It Hurt Summary”

Time for a quick Jeopardy round:

This country’s GDP accounts for a quarter of the world’s nominal GDP, and yet its healthcare system was ranked by WHO as worse than the ones of Cyprus and Costa Rica?

The correct question is:

What, in earth’s name, is wrong with USA’s healthcare?

Jonathan Bush says: quite about everything.

First of all, no matter how sick you are, it’s hard to even reach the hospital. Parking is so bad that sometimes you need to park very far from the premises. Then, you’ll be lucky if your medical record is found promptly – or, even found at all. And even if this goes well, you’ll still need to wait quite few hours before you reach your doctor.

No, we won’t even mention the bills! An interesting stat says much more: even though America’s healthcare system is ranked as the 37th best in the world, the expenditure per capita is the world’s highest!

In other words: if you live in the United States, you pay more and get less than most of the developed countries in the world.

Bush’s question: but, how has this not resulted in a competitive field?

It’s not like we don’t have precedents.

For example, when the LASIK eye correction surgery first arrived in the beginning of the 1990s, the operation wasn’t covered by insurance. So, people had to pay. And providers had to make the service as best as possible and as cheap as feasible.

Three decades later, this has resulted in a 95 percent satisfaction rate. Or, to put this in a more memorable way: in a world of competitors, the customer is the one who wins the most.

Consequently, hospitals will be better off if run like businesses. Bush himself should know this best, since his company, athenahealth, is a pioneer in the field. By offering patients information giant hospitals don’t, it has attracted a host of customers.

The same holds true for Cerberus Capital, which bought six Catholic community hospitals in 2010 and turned them into for-profit clinics. They now have 11 – so their model probably works! Very well, in fact.

And why shouldn’t it?

Say, you want to get a CT scan. You go to a hospital and they tell you there that it costs $500. A private-owned company with new equipment offers CT scans for five times less. Wouldn’t you opt for the second choice?

That’s right:

Competition results in alternatives, and alternatives mean lower prices and better service. In time, a more structured service as well.

In fact, Bush says that this is also a serious problem in the American healthcare system. It’s not structured properly, so many people visit specialists when they can be treated at a much lower level.

Primary healthcare is virtually non-existent in the United States, and, as Rushika Fernandopulle has found out, it solves many problems and saves everybody a lot of money.

How, you wonder?

Well, Fernandopulle worked with Boeing and realized that the company spent fortune on hospital bills for its employees, for health issues they were able to treat by themselves. Coaching them some proper preventive measures resulted not only in better health for the Boeing’s staff members, but also in drastically reduced costs for the company!

Primary healthcare is a good way for entrepreneurs to disrupt the market, but a health-oriented digital start-up is an even better one!

Case in point: Beyond Lucid and are two such startups which have already shown great results. They considerably improve a patient’s experience by letting him or her sign up for appointments online and sending relevant data and records straight to doctors before the patient’s arrival.

Technology is great at doing these things. Interestingly enough, hospitals still don’t have it.

Entrepreneurs of America, unite: there’s your chance to make some change!

Key Lessons from “Where Does It Hurt”

1.      USA’s Healthcare System Is Out of Sorts
2.      Competition May Make America Healthier
3.      You Can Be Healthier If You Visit Your Primary Doctor

USA’s Healthcare System Is Out of Sorts

Something’s rotten in the state of… America. The people are sick, but much more than of some illness – they are sick of its hospitals! Because, USA’s healthcare system has been under the weather for decades now.

Parking is impossible, medical records unattainable, bills unpayable.  And it’s not because of the lack of money. There is plenty of money, in fact! It’s the competition that’s lacking.

Competition May Make America Healthier

It’s the basic logic of the market: when there are competitors and alternatives, the service gets better and cheaper and the customer always leaves satisfied.

The healthcare market should be disrupted by private entrepreneurs. In fact, says Bush. this is the only thing which will make it better. If hospitals are run like businesses, it’s not only the current patients which will benefit.

Competition will also result in the advancement of proper technology. So, basically, the sooner the healthcare system becomes a competitive field, the earlier we’ll find a cure for cancer.

You Can Be Healthier If You Visit Your Primary Doctor

It may sound a bit paradoxical, but if you want to be healthy, you’ve got to get something out of your head: don’t go to the hospital as often! Visit your primary doctor instead. Because your primary doctor will send you to the right kind of specialist when – and if – such a problem arises.

In every other case – he will teach you how to solve it. Nice and neat. And probably pain-free.

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“Where Does It Hurt” Quotes

The fabulous market opportunity is not in replacing bad with better. The trick instead is to provide something the customers simply don’t have. Click To Tweet With the expansion of health data, insurance carriers will increasingly be in a position to offer customized rates. Click To Tweet is this freedom to make choices that will lead to a real health care market, one with many providers, many customers, and many options. Click To Tweet The industries we care about least innovate at the highest speeds, while those we hold dearest to our heart innovate hardly at all. Education, for example, is perhaps our most precious industry. Click To Tweet Consumers participate in a kind of informal laboratory. This could be one of the pathways leading toward personalized medicine. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

You’ll probably won’t love “Where Does It Hurt?” It’s not that well-researched, makes some unfounded comparisons (choosing healthcare providers should work the same as choosing washing machines?), and doesn’t’ really add an argument to the table.

However, just like in the case of “True Enough,” your answer will depend on whether you’re a Republican or a Democrat. And you’ll either like it or hate it. We, personally, found inside it both inspirational and falsely premised ideas.

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Where Good Ideas Come From Summary

Where Good Ideas Come From SummaryHow many times have you said to yourself that one day you would have that “Eureka” moment and come up with a great, unheard-of idea?

Well, let us tell you that according to entrepreneur and author Steven Johnson, the “Eureka” moments you are waiting for are just a myth.

Ideas do not merely happen in isolation.

Then, where can you find them?

In the following summary of Stephen Johnson’s TED Talk: “Where Good Ideas Come From”, we show you the way.

About Steven Johnson

Steven JohnsonSteven Johnson is an author, speaker, and the founder of the online magazine FEED.

“Where Good Ideas Come From Summary”

Do you know why the English coffeehouse was essential to the Enlightenment?

Well, first because the rise of the coffeehouse had a significant influence in creating popular drinking habits.

Before it existed, everyone drunk alcohol as a daylong refreshment. In other words, people were practically drunk all the time.

The meaning of the coffeehouse was immense. With its appearance, it helped the world in many ways.

People moved from drinking alcohol, which is a primary depressant, to drinking stimulating teas and coffees. The new drinking habits brought considerable improvements in the public’s critical thinking skills. People started thinking more and engaged themselves in philosophical movements.

Second, “the architecture of the space” affected people as well.

In other words, the coffeehouses allowed people with different backgrounds to gather in one place, and share their ideas, change them, merge them, and develop new ones.

This meant that different innovations became possible.

Different environments that allow and enable innovation, regardless of whether they are virtual, physical or biological, share similar patterns.

However, to understand these patterns, you need to clear your head from traditional images and concepts that present innovation and creation as a lightbulb flash. What we mean to say is that the conventional ways of thinking see discovery as a dramatic appearance of an entirely new, breakthrough idea.

However, this is a wrong way of reasoning.

You must have heard so many times before that everything that could be thought of was already thought of.  Indeed there are no entirely new ideas, but there are limitless possibilities of reconnecting old ideas in a new way.

Even on the most basic level, in the human brain, a new idea consists of a new configuration of existing neurons.

The problem is that most people are not capable of pinpointing the exact origin of their ideas. Most of the time they believe that the ideas and concepts appear when they are alone.

Again, if you think the same, you are wrong.

Video evidence collected from a global study suggests the complete opposite.

Researchers concluded that most of the fresh ideas and discoveries happen at the conference table, where colleagues can share their thoughts, their work, their mistakes, and their challenges.

So, the next time you have to push yourself and think of something fresh and new, go out and seek loud places like the early coffee houses we already mentioned. We like to call these places “liquid network.”

Another misconception that people have is that ideas are developed in a single burst of inspiration.

However, the opposite is true. Many ideas incubate for an extended period of time, they linger in the back of one’s mind for months, years, even decades, and present themselves as exciting but never resolved questions.

Take Charles Darwin for example. When he talked about his discovery of natural selection, he described it as a “Eureka” moment. However, if you look at his notebooks, you will notice that they tell a very different story.

His annotations in it show that he had thought about his idea for many months, he has worked on it a long time, only the details did not connect to a larger picture in his mind yet.

Creating an environment that inspires innovation means that you need to create space and time for people to develop their hunches. Furthermore, they need to have enough opportunities for interaction.

Key Lessons from “Where Good Ideas Come From”:

1.      Fresh Ideas are Old Ideas Redeveloped in a New Way
2.      Isolation is Not Your Friend
3.      A Need for a Shift of Priorities

Fresh Ideas are Old Ideas Redeveloped in a New Way

Breakthroughs are a creative reconnection and redevelopment of already existing concepts.

Isolation is Not Your Friend

Isolating yourself or finding your silent place will not bring you that “great idea.” On the contrary, brainstorming in a group is what creates the most innovative results.

A Need for a Shift of Priorities

Nowadays, a vast number of companies concentrate on secrecy and try every way they can to protect their intellectual property. However, a focus on communication, networking and sharing ideas would certainly create more breakthroughs in the world.

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Our Critical Review

Johnson talks about ideas and where you could find them in a simple and entertaining lecture. He uses the crowded English coffeehouses and the pages of Charles Darwin’s journals as the materials to back his theory.

We recommend this TED talk for anyone who is interested in innovation and creativity and the way the human mind works.

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Turn the Ship Around Summary

Turn the Ship Around SummaryA True Story of Turning Followers into Leaders

Wouldn’t it be great if everybody in the world has equal chances and opportunities? And wouldn’t it be even better if there are no rigid hierarchies, so that you can be both a leader and a follower, depending on the situation?

Of course, it would. Except it isn’t.

In fact, the totally opposite is true. Some are usually expected to follow, and the ones who lead are almost always ruthless in their leadership.

We’ve already learned a thing or two about leadership from some the past greats, such as Lincoln and Washington. And we went over the 21 laws of leadership.

But, “Turn the Ship Around” is a bit different. It’s even more democratic than “The Leaders We Need.”

Quick – find out how!

Who Should Read “Turn the Ship Around”? And Why?

Most of the books you’ve so far read about leadership are written by leaders and about everybody. Their main goal is to teach you, a regular guy, how to become a leader not too dissimilar from the respective writer.

“Turn the Ship Around” doesn’t conform to this standard. It is a book with a much narrower audience, written by a leader for leaders. And it’s got a lot to do with military skills. Its outlook, however, is groundbreaking even in that area.

In short, a revolutionary book about leaders who want to disrupt the leader-follower paradigm by learning about the benefits from an unconventional source: The US Navy.

About L. David Marquet

L. David MarquetDavid Marquet is a former U. S. Navy captain and a successful author on articles and books about leaders and leadership. A 1981 U.S. Naval Academy graduate, he commandeered the nuclear-powered USS Santa Fe submarine from 1999 to 2001, turning its crew from “worst to best” by disturbing the standard practices.

He is a contributor to “Forbes”, and publishes the weekly YouTube motivational, “Leadership nudges”. You can reach him at his website:

Turn the Ship Around Summary

We’ve all been there:

You would give everything to not have to go to work tomorrow!

You know how we know this:

Because at least 1 in 2 Americans doesn’t like his or her job! No wonder that productivity plummets and unemployment levels rise to unprecedented levels!

According to Marquet, there’s a simple reason for this: we’ve lost our step with the times. And this is especially true for leaders and managers!

You see, today’s leaders are not much different than the ones who managed the building of the pyramids or the Industrial Revolution. In fact, a pharaoh might do just as good as a company CEO today. The problem is that this good is not good enough.

What do we mean?

Well, people like to follow. But, people follow other people only to a certain extent. When decision-making is a part of your job description, you are less likely to be efficient if you are led. You need to be the leader yourself.

That’s why “Turn the Ship Around” suggests that you think outside the box! Instead of a “leader-follower” approach, develop a “leader-leader” strategy. In short, train trailblazers – not devotees.

Because, if there’s one thing people like more than following is being followed. Everyone can be a leader, in its own fashion.

The author found out this himself while being a captain of the USS Santa Fe. While he was the commander, the submarine was awarded the most improved ship in the fleet, and the crew went from being the worst to one of the best around.

What is the best leader-leader approach?

It starts with an uncomfortable thing: giving away some of your power. And there are two important ways in which you can do this: giving your employees greater responsibilities and allowing them to make decisions on their own.

That made the members of the USS Santa Fe crew much more motivated and trustworthy. They didn’t ask for permissions. But they didn’t shy away from taking the blame either. They felt both freer and more accountable.

For how many of your workers can you say that?

Now, delegating is not a magical stick. It wouldn’t result in one of your untrained employees suddenly becoming better at what they’re doing! So, be careful with it.

In Marquet’s opinion, one thing that may help you is creating a tradition and a shared goal. That’s why Disney is so great, in fact. And that’s why Apple shares the “think differently” motto many times a year with its employees.

There’s no better way to inspire your subordinates than making them an equal part of the same decades-long story. That way, they will feel as part of a family.

And you will lead – by being led.

Key Lessons from “Turn the Ship Around”

1.      The Leader-Follower Philosophy Is a Thing of the Past
2.      The Times They Are A-Changing
3.      The Leader-Leader Philosophy Is the Future

The Leader-Follower Philosophy Is a Thing of the Past

Pharaohs did it. Factories in 19th century England did it as well. Why shouldn’t you?

The reason why the “leader-follower” philosophy worked for them was very simple: the workers were physical laborers, and they didn’t have to make any decisions for themselves. Leaders gave orders and the orders had to be resolute and unambiguous. Workers had to listen and never question them.

Leaders knew so much and the workers so little. Leaders wanted to be missed after leaving the premises.

It was all but slavery, but it was also efficient. You can move a stone or operate a steam engine only by using brute force. There’s no other way.

The Times They Are A-Changing

Nowadays, there is!

Most of the companies today are filled with smart and confident people who can add value to the company if given more freedom and responsibilities.

The 20th century was the century of workers. The 21st is the century of leaders.

The Leader-Leader Philosophy Is the Future

In a “leader-leader” philosophy you don’t take control in your hands – you give it to your workers. You do this by giving them more responsibilities, and less orders. You want your workers to know as much as you. Consequently, you want them to not miss you when you’re gone.

Above all, you want them to think for themselves and make decisions for themselves. To be leaders. Each and every one of them.

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“Turn the Ship Around” Quotes

My definition of leadership is this: Leadership is communicating to people their worth and potential so clearly that they are inspired to see it in themselves. Click To Tweet In a leader-follower structure, the performance of the organization is closely linked to the ability of the leader. Click To Tweet The leader-leader model not only achieves great improvements in effectiveness and morale but also makes the organization stronger. Click To Tweet Leader-leader structures are significantly more resilient, and they do not rely on the designated leader always being right. Click To Tweet Leader-leader structures spawn additional leaders throughout the organization naturally. It can’t be stopped. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

“Turn the Ship Around” is an unconventional book about leadership in any possible way.

First of all, it’s not written by a businessman, but by a US Navy Captain and deals with his experiences while commandeering a submarine. Secondly, it suggests turning your business strategy upside down – creating leaders instead of followers, developing the talent of those around you instead of using it.

Finally, it wasn’t received the way you would expect it to be! It had raving reviews, ranked as the second-best book on leadership by “USA Today” and described as “the best how-to manual anywhere for managers” by “Fortune”.

GetNugget couldn’t agree more. The principles the book teaches are both timeless and inspiring, encouraging and groundbreaking. We join the accolades. Gladly.

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Breaking the Page Summary

Breaking the Page Summary

Transforming Books and the Reading Experience

Let us guess: you’re reading this on your mobile phone or on a tablet.

But, wait a minute, you say: that was as easy as guesses go! After all, you don’t even have a hardcopy version of your website summaries! (Quick mental note: there should be one! The title writes itself: “100 Best GetNugget Summaries: Read a 100 Books In 1 Book’s Time”).

And, that’s the interesting part!

If we did have this summary in a hardcopy form, especially if it was beautifully designed, chances are you’d prefer that one. Why?

In “Breaking the Page”, Peter Meyers scrutinizes the reasons.

And we have them summarized for you here.

Who Should Read “Breaking the Page”? And Why?

When eBooks first arrived, the publishing industry went into a DEFCON 2 kind of frenzy. Understandably so: people expected that eBook readers spelled the end for traditional books. Fortunately for them, they were wrong: for some reason, people still like traditional books better.

Read “Breaking the Page” if you like to uncover the reasons behind this. Read it particularly if you are in the publishing business since Meyers offers a glimpse into a future where eBooks are a bit more competitive.

Finally, read it if you are interested in mild futurism – there are some things here you will definitely find interesting.

About Peter Meyers

Peter MeyersPeter Meyers is a freelance journalist and author, specialized in writing about the world of digital publishing. He has written numerous articles on eBooks and related matters (the effect of computers on conventional culture) for publications as respected as the “Wall Street Journal,” “New York Times,” and “Wired.”

In addition to “Breaking the Page,” he has also written the self-explanatory “Kindle Fire HD: The Missing Manual.” You can find some of his opinions at

Breaking the Page Summary

If you think about it, eBooks have many competitive advantages over traditional books.

Let’s go over the most obvious three:

First of all, they are virtual, so they don’t take up any real space. You can fit millions of them in your Kindle or on your iPad or on your computer. You’ll never have that many physical books in your life unless you’re really, really rich. Or, unless you’re working in the library. (By the way, have you tried packing a million books when traveling?)

Secondly, they are much more customizable and searchable. This is especially good for researchers (try searching an indexless book!) or those with eyesight problems (you can’t change the font size in a traditional book).

Finally, they are a lot cheaper and they arrive instantaneously if bought from Amazon or eBay.

Now, here’s the catch:

Peter Meyers, a digital book lover, and impresario says they are still inferior to traditional books.

Especially when it comes to fiction!

Because, you see, fiction is all about the text. And you can’t really arrange blocks of text as easily on an eBook reader. Have you noticed how carefully we’re breaking down our summaries into smaller chunks? That’s because, on the screen, you can’t follow large blocks of text.

That reminds us: time for a one-line bucket brigade.

Because this is where it gets interesting!

If this is true, says Meyers – and science says it is – then eBooks and traditional books aren’t really competitors. They are something different that should focus on different things.

In other words, both eBooks and traditional books have their weaknesses. In the case of traditional books, there’s not much you can do about them. But, in the case of eBooks – you can!

So, why do people – both publishers and readers – insist on treating eBooks as replicas of traditional books? This stops either from seeing that eBooks can do so many things better!

Which are they?

Well, the main reading problem nowadays is the lack of concentration. People are less and less focused and interested to get to grips with books Victorian-style, so they try to find techniques to master faster reading.

eBooks are practically perfect for that!

Meyers suggests that they can be designed in a way which would allow a person to read in any of the three possible ways: fastest (skimming), fast (grokking), slow (mastering).


Just turn the book chapters into a simulated stack of cards. On the front side, there will be a brief outline of the chapter, on the backside its content. Skimming would be achieved by running through the cards’ front sides, grokking by turning over only the ones you’re interested in, and mastering by reading the book regularly, from start to finish.

But, that’s only the beginning!

What about multimedia? Traditional books can’t insert a video of a person explaining Einstein’s theory of relativity between paragraphs! eBooks can. And, if you ask Meyers, they should.

They should also organize eBook libraries better. You can’t search through thousands of traditional books looking for an information, but it’s easy to do this with eBooks. Then, why isn’t it implemented?

Just imagine what an eBook Google would mean for that thesis you’ve been delaying!

Speaking of writing:

This may be an area where it would be good to treat eBooks as replicas of traditional books. Anyone who has researched something understands perfectly the need for taking notes, and linking paragraphs.

So far, unfortunately, eBook designers seem to have not really cared that reading is as much about notetaking as it is about glancing through chunks of text.

And they should start caring immediately!

Key Lessons from “Breaking the Page”

1.      Traditional Books Are Here to Stay… But So Are eBooks
2.      eBooks Shouldn’t Be Replicas of Traditional Books
3.      The Potential of eBooks

Traditional Books Are Here to Stay… But So Are eBooks

When eBooks first appeared, everybody expected that it’s the end of traditional books. Now, many people think that eBooks are just a passing fad.

But, it’s safe to say that, even though most of the people prefer printed copies, there are just about enough who prefer the screen to the paper.

And there are reasons to believe that this will always be so.

eBooks Shouldn’t Be Replicas of Traditional Books

Traditional books have some serious advantages over eBooks. Like, for example, fetishistic aspects, such as the smell of paper or the sound of first opening a book. Or, even more, the ease with which you can read a 500-page novel on paper, as opposed to the discomfort you might experience if you need to read the same book on a Kindle.

However, the opposite is true as well: eBooks are better than traditional books in more than one aspect. Design and multimedia freedom, customizability, searchability – to name just a few possible attributes.

In other words, eBooks are virtual and will lose if they try to imitate traditional books. They will gain a lot if they think of themselves as something different from traditional paper books.

The Potential of eBooks

And this is where it gets interesting: the potential of eBooks is so far both under-researched and theoretically limitless. In fact, in twenty years, eBooks have evolved more than traditional books in two millennia.

The latter, however, are perfect as they are. The former, on an evolutionary scale, are merely Neanderthals.

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“Breaking the Page” Quotes

I wanted to trace out more than just what our devices make possible. I wanted to draft plans for what modern readers need. Click To Tweet The ever-churning eBook factories put millions of titles within immediate reach. Click To Tweet The digital screen is an infinite canvas, unconstrained by paginated boundaries. Click To Tweet In the digital realm, my delight is born of possibility more than of what has actually been produced to date. Click To Tweet I hope this book helps others make books that make you happy. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

Ironically, there are many people who have read “Breaking the Page” in a paperback format. And this something Peter Meyers has a serious issue with. Because, as he says, eBooks have an enormous potential which has never been used.

The problem:

For some reason, people still think of eBooks as printed books transformed into pixels. They are not, and they should never be, he says. And then he goes on a short enlightening excursion into the future of digital publishing.

And some of his ideas – such as multimedia eBooks, slack-of-cards eBooks, searchable eBook libraries – are not merely great, but quite doable even now. Who knows? Maybe Meyers will be looked at by future generations as a sort of a digital book Jules Verne.

Until then, this is the book to be inspired from!

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Hooked Summary

Hooked SummaryHow to Build Habit-Forming Products

You live a life that is formed by your habits.

In the following summary of “Hooked,” we will show you how you can create and advertise products in a way that gets your customers hooked on it.

Read on to find out all aspects of the Hook Model.

Who Should Read “Hooked”? and Why?

The morning coffee, the three alarms that wake you up, check your e-mail as soon as you open your eyes – these actions are all habits.

You perform these activities with little or no thought, and you feel that it is just the way you live your life. You are “Hooked”.

Author Nir Eyal teaches you how to use the habit-forming process to hook your customers to your products and services.

We are confident that “Hooked” will hook entrepreneurs, designers, and marketers.

So, what are you waiting for? Read on.

About Nir Eyal

Nir EyalNir Eyal is a video-gaming and advertising industry veteran. He writes, speaks and teaches about applied consumer psychology.

“Hooked Summary”

Every day, you act based on habit.

You complete these habitual behaviors and actions with little or no thought. When your habit is connected to using a service or product, like using a smartphone, or Instagram, the company that owns that service or product notices a significant win.

Marketers do everything they can to design the customer experience in a way that it becomes ingrained. They do so because for a product to be successful, it requires loyal, habitual users.

Smartphones, game consoles, and other handheld devices give clients an ongoing and constant access and connectivity.

Marketers have two available tools at their hand for transforming their customers’ behavior into forming a habit: the constant entrée and detailed personal data gathered through data mining.

Investors compute an organization’s “client lifetime value” (CLTV) to understand their overall value.

How can we define CLTV?

It is the amount of cash a business believes it will make from a particular client during his or her lifetime.

The more habit-forming an item is, the higher its CLTV the business can expect to be.

As purchasers accept a product and incorporate it into their lifestyles, their resistance toward the increase in its cost declines.

Loyal clients share their experience regarding the products they habitually enjoy and review and recommend them via social networks.

Businesses habit-forming marketing offerings fight off rivalry.

New market entrants think that it is hard to change purchasers’ implanted behaviors, even at times when they offer a superior item.

Take the QWERTY keyboard for example. It was created in the 1870s for the first typewriters. Ever since then, people created better layouts, but people did not adopt them.

Such is the case because once people become capable of typing on a QWERTY keyboard, they are disinclined to learn another system, regardless of whether it is more productive.

Key Lessons from “Hooked”:

1.      The “Habit Zone”
2.      The “Hook Model”
3.      Assess and Follow Up

The “Habit Zone”

The Habit Zone is the sweet spot situated between the frequency of a behavior and the perceived convenience and ease of use. Products and services fall into one of the two categories: vitamins and painkillers (metaphorically speaking).

Vitamins are products which bring satisfaction and are surely nice to have, but people can live without them. People feel great when they have a vitamin product, but they do not feel terrible if they do not.

On the other hand, people feel pain when painkiller products are not available. When something becomes your habit, having it out of reach hurts.

The “Hook Model”

The Hook Model is a four-step process that can help businesses hook their customers on their offerings. People who get hooked will use that product or service repeatedly, making marketing less necessary.

  • “Trigger: The Actuator of Behavior”

Triggers initiate your behavior. They are motivators that push people to take certain kinds of actions.

Triggers can be internal or external.

External categories are divided into four groups: paid, earned, relationship, and owned.

Internal triggers are subconscious connections between a thought or action and emotion.

  • “Action: The Behavior Done in Anticipation of a Reward”

Action is what triggers motivate. In other words, an action is a way you behave because you expect a certain award. When it comes to habits, people act instinctively, without giving the action much thought.

Dr. B.J. Fogg has developed his “Fogg Behavior Model” in which he presents the formula “B=MAT”: “Behavior” happens in the presence of sufficient “Motivation,” and “Ability” plus “a Trigger.”

Fogg places human motivators into three categories: “To seek pleasure and avoid pain; to seek hope and avoid fear; to seek social acceptance and avoid rejection.”

  • “Variable Reward: The Hook’s Ability to Create a Craving”

Craving is what the Hook Model uses to create your desire.

Once people act, they feel the relief of having their urges satisfied or their problems solved.

Research into reward behavior has shown that expecting an award activates the brain’s pleasure center.

Variable awards fall into three types: “the tribe, the hunt, and the self.”

  • “Investment: The User Does a Bit of Work”

When you invest yourself in an effort, you become more committed to your purchase. Or, simply said, people usually develop habits concerning products or services that they use.

Even slight investments of energy or time create strong bonds.

At the point when people commit to a particular behavior, they are more likely to repeat it in the future. The more energy and time a customer invests in your product, it is more likely that they will keep using it.

Assess and Follow Up

If you decide to use the Hook Model, study your motivations to make sure that you are not exploiting others to gain an advantage, and that you have the proper purposes.

The “Manipulation Matrix” is a chart consisting of four-quadrants that helps you study your motives for using the Hook Model.

  • “The Facilitator” is a creator who trusts their service or product makes a positive contribution, and who would go ahead and use it himself.
  • “The Peddler” is a seller who believes that the product or service he offers has some value, but would not necessarily use it himself.
  • “The Entertainer” looks at the business at a “hits-driven” process.
  • “The Dealer” is a manipulator who uses what they offer as a way to make money.

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“Hooked” Quotes

79 percent of smartphone owners check their device within 15 minutes of waking up every morning. Click To Tweet Users who continually find value in a product are more likely to tell their friends about it. Click To Tweet Companies who form strong user habits enjoy several benefits to their bottom line. Click To Tweet Many innovations fail because consumers irrationally overvalue the old while companies irrationally overvalue the new. Click To Tweet The mind takes shortcuts informed by our surroundings to make quick and sometimes erroneous judgments. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

Nir Eyal created the “Hook Model” by analyzing the traits that successful products have in common, drawing insights from neuroscience, behavioral psychology and his personal experience in gaming and advertising. Although this model is particularly suitable for digital products, all products can benefit from it.

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The Global Brain Summary

The Global Brain SummaryYour Roadmap for Innovating Faster and Smarter in a Networked World

Contemporary companies must be open to the world and tap into talent, ideas, and technology from all around the planet. That is the only way the will be able to stay competitive on the market.

Who Should Read “The Global Brain”? and Why?

The notion of “The Global Brain” has been around for some time now.

However, as the years pass, and as India’s and China’s economies continue to strengthen, and their employees’ technical expertise expands, the concept is gaining importance in the business world.

Satish Nambisan and Mohanbir Sawhney have written “The Global Brain” for that reason. In it, they give you enough reasons that you should consider using “network-centric innovation” (NCI) in your firm.

We recommend this book to research and development experts, executives, and managers who want to stay up to date and create the environment to innovate.

About Satish Nabisan and Mohanbir Sawhney

Satish Nambisan is an author and an associate professor at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute’s Lally School of Management.

Mohanbir SawhneyMohanbir Sawhney is the director of the Center for Research in Technology & Innovation at Northwestern University.

“The Global Brain Summary”

Innovation fuels prosperity.

New items that companies offer to their clients enable them to survive in the marketplace.

This has never been truer than it is today.

During the past few decades, life cycles of goods have been shortening. Once upon a time, products could be sold for years without significant modifications. Now, they become outdated in only months.

So what can you do to “beat” the market?

Well, you need to innovate more. And to do so, you have to reduce the cost that comes with innovation.

Companies no longer have the resources to buy technical infrastructure and build big in-house teams for product development. At the same time, the race for innovation is quickening and running as fast as you can only keep you in place. To move, you have to run even faster than you can.

However, isn’t that impossible?

No, it is not. You can make it happen by building innovation networks with other companies.

Nowadays companies are creating global resource networks that allow them to combine their different expertise. The aggregate of organizations, experts, and technologies involved in the process make the “Global Brain.” Your firm can use the “Global Brain” anytime it needs to push for innovation and results.

Networking enables you to give the market the right products that are in demand, at a cost which is lower than the individual cost that your firm would have if you did not use the “Global Brain.” Furthermore, it allows you to share technology, extend the geographic reach of your business, use infrastructure efficiently and ask for help from outside experts.

The set of factors that support and fuel the “Global Brain” consists of the Internet, globalized manufacturing, open source software, outsourcing and private labeling.

Key Lessons from “The Global Brain”

1.      Understanding Network-Centric Innovation
2.      Methods of Network-Centric Innovation
3.      Making it happen

Understanding Network-Centric Innovation

There are two sides to network-centric innovation: the nature of the innovation and the nature of the network leadership.

To define the first one determine where your product or service is on a continuum from “emergent” to “defined.”

The leadership can be “diffused,” “centralized,” or somewhere in between. What are the differences? In a diffused network, all participants have leadership responsibilities. Centralized systems, on the other hand, have a core, that makes the decisions, and a periphery that complies with them.

Methods of Network-Centric Innovation

The intersection of the nature of innovation and network leadership creates four models of network-centric innovation.

  • The Orchestra model (best for defined innovation and centralized network)
  • The Creative Bazaar model (best for emergent innovation and centralized network)
  • The Jam Central model (best for emergent innovation and diffused network)
  • The MOD Station model (best for defined innovation and diffused network)

Making It Happen

After you realize which network-centric model suits you best, start thinking about the changes you need to implement in your organization for it to be able to innovate more successfully.

Start by creating an inventory of the resources and capabilities you currently have at hand and write down a plan to strengthen the weak areas. Before continuing to implementation, make sure you have all the tools necessary to support innovation initiatives.

It would not hurt if you learned about other companies’ best practices in the field of innovation and tried to use the ones that suit you in your own business.

Don’t forget your corporate culture. You have to change it so it can support the changes you are about to make. Especially be careful if your company has the “we know everything” syndrome, which is undoubtedly going to stop you from brainstorming new ideas. Lastly, you will most likely have to make structural changes as well.

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“The Global Brain” Quotes

Rapidly decreasing product life cycles, decreasing internal innovation productivity and global competition are creating a Red Queen effect in innovation: Companies have to invest more and more just to maintain their market position. Click To Tweet An innovation network consists of a set of independent actors with varying goals and aspirations, diverse resources and capabilities, and different business models. Click To Tweet Governance is more than just policing. It also involves creating an environment that is conducive to interacting and exchanging information and resources. Click To Tweet Despite the community-based innovation agenda and governance system of the Jam Central model, abundant opportunities exist for large for-profit companies to participate in such initiatives. Click To Tweet Firms don’t play the role of an innovation sponsor as an act of altruism or social service. Such decisions are always based on a sound business case. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

The authors tried to make their book “The Global Brain” practical, but when you are in the position of a reader, you will find it quite theoretical. It is filled with anecdotes and metaphors, but even though the explanations of the models are clear, it will be up to you to find a way to turn them into practice.

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