John Maynard Keynes Summary

John Maynard Keynes Summary1883 – 1946: Economist, Philosopher, Statesman

Who was John Maynard Keynes and what is his place in our world’s history?

Our summary of “John Maynard Keynes” presents you the biography of one of the 20th century’s most important financial figures.

Who Should Read “John Maynard Keynes”? and Why?

This book is an abridgment of the three-volume biography of John Maynard Keynes, by author Robert Skidelsky. We must say, it is a magnificent work.

Skidelsky pains an image of Keynes not only as an economist, but as a statesman and philosopher as well. He does not separate one from the other, and shows them how they work together in creating his whole personality.

We believe that “John Maynard Keynes” is a great read for all readers interested in the events that marked the 20th century.

About Robert Skidelsky

Robert SkidelskyRobert Skidelsky is the author of a three-volume biography of Keynes, a critically acclaimed piece.

“John Maynard Keynes Summary”

John Maynard Keynes (1883) was the first born child of Florence Ada Brown and John Neville Keynes.

His father was an independent man who had transformed a brush-production firm into a prosperous manufacturing business and after that made a fortune in flowers. His mother was a daughter of a nonconformist academic clergyman, who met his father while he was lecturing and married him in 1882.

John Maynard had a younger brother and sister, but his parents favored him.

During his childhood, John Maynard partook in discussions with his dad’s knowledgeable acquaintances and showed a talent for mathematics and logic. Indeed, as time went by, he excelled in math and took an interest in sports as well, at which he neither exceeded expectations nor performed inauspiciously.

In 1902, he took the Cambridge Higher Certificate examination and, despite the fact that he had not prepared up for it, he ended up on top of the list of examinees.

Then, he went at Cambridge and became a member of the Cambridge Union, which was a debating society. He often spoke on politics, even as a freshman.

Amid his first year, he was welcome to join the Cambridge Conversazione Society, otherwise called the Apostles.

This was the most elite of Cambridge’s secret societies. The members were smart, unworldly, withdrawn, pompous, relatively incapable of casual chitchat, inconsistent and not charming at all.

Among them, Keynes’ dearest companion was Lytton Strachey, who had a developmental influence on him.

Keynes and Strachey saw their homosexuality as the establishment of a code of morals they called “higher sodomy.”

They thought ladies to be physically and rationally the second rate and saw their male countrymen as sexually and morally preferable.

Being a part of the Bloomsbury Circle’s intellectual and aesthetic avantgarde, Keynes had various relationships and some casual meetings with other men, in particular with painter Duncan Grant.

Be that as it may, in 1918 he met ballet dancer Lydia Lopokova.

The affair they had developed, and in 1923 he acquainted her with his parents and asked her to marry him.

Their marriage ended on Easter Sunday, April 21, 1946, when Keynes passed on with Lydia at his bedside.

Key Lessons from “John Maynard Keynes”

1.      Economics, Diplomacy, and Philosophy
2.      The 1920s
3.      Keynes’s influence

Economics, Diplomacy, and Philosophy

Keynes started lecturing on economics at Cambridge in 1911 and took a profound interest in the financial issues of the school.

In 1912, he made a contract to compose a book on Indian monetary affairs. Indian Currency and Finance, which he published in 1913.

In 1914, shortly before England entered into war with Germany, the Treasury looked for Keynes’ assistance settling a financial emergency.

Keynes scrutinized the administration’s lavish, tax-subsidized rescue of London firms.

He had argued that the institutions should be required to hold those debts for the length of the war, which was expected to be somewhat short.

This counsel was in opposition to his financial interest since he and his dad had investments whose value would have plummeted if the legislature had not taken care of the debts.

In 1915, Keynes was introduced as a Treasury official. Soon after, he took an interest in the first conference to sort out war credits among the Allies.

By chance, in 1916, Keynes asked for an exception from the military obligation on the grounds of conscientious protest.

Given that his Treasury posting exempted him, the question remains: for what reason did he do this?

Some think that he thought about leaving his post at the Treasury.

In any case, he soon got busy with attempting to save Britain from another financial crisis.

The 1920s

Amid the 1920s, Keynes filled in as a financial consultant, corporate executive, and journalist. He profited and for a period was a collector of fine art.

In 1921, he published his Treatise on Probability, talking about the significance of rational conduct under uncertain conditions.

In his 1923 book A Tract on Monetary Reform, Keynes compressed his contemplations about the “theory, practice and objects of monetary policy.”

In 1924 Keynes started the Treatise on Money.

He noticed that since banks made money, just the Bank of England could get even out investments and savings in the U.K.

In any case, the gold standard made it unthinkable for the bank to alter interest rates to match savings.

England endured enormous levels of unemployment. Keynes demonstrated how depression came about when expected profits were not as high as the market rate of interest.

He appeared to be prophetic after the 1929 Wall Street crash.

Keynes’s Influence

Keynes’s most significant work, The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money, started to develop a progression of lectures he gave in 1932.

By 1934, he was lecturing from the book’s proofs.

Keynes’ ensuing influence on monetary policy amid the ’30s and ’40s is relatively difficult to overstate. He was, apparently, vital in the plan of the postwar financial architecture laid out at Bretton Woods.

The fall of that architecture in the 1970s may even have been unsurprising when looking at the principles illustrated in some of Keynes’ initial writings on the gold standard.

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Our Critical Review

He sets Keynes in the context of his time and circumstances. Skidelsky is unsparing in his treatment of the inconsistencies and contradictions in Keynes’ life and character, but he is fair and balanced; he avoids sensationalism even in the treatment of the sensational.

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The Geography of Genius Summary

The Geography of Genius Summary

A Search for the World’s Most Creative Places From Ancient Athens to Silicon Valley

Are you ready to travel around the world in… well, 400 pages and few days? No? What about in thousand words and merely ten minutes?

Sounds better, we know.

So, without a further ado, the summary of “The Geography of Genius.”

Who Should Read “The Geography of Genius”? And Why?

“The Geography of Genius” is a weird kind of a personal travelogue.


Because its mission is to answer a strange question. Namely, why do geniuses cluster around specific places at specific moments in history?

However, people who have read Eric Weiner’s previous book, “The Geography of Bliss” – his attempt to discover the world’s happiest places – rather than surprised, will be in rubbing-hands mood.

“The Geography of Genius” is unpretentious and funny, interesting and charming. So, additionally it should be a treat for anyone interested in the interrelation of history and geography.

Or, geniuses, for that matter.

About Eric Weiner

Eric WeinerEric Weiner is a respected journalist and bestselling writer. A former longtime correspondent for the NPR, he has authored three part-memoirs part-travelogues whose overarching mission is a personal quest for answers to some fairly difficult questions.

The Geography of Bliss” tackles an interesting problem: which is the happiest country in the world and why. “Man Seeks God” explores different aspects of many world religions. Finally, “The Geography of Genius,” uncovers how and why is genius related to geography.

“The Geography of Genius Summary”

Our thousands-of-years long and thousands-of-kilometers wide story begins with Keith Simonton, a professor of psychology at the University of California.

One of the topics which interest him the most: geniuses. And one of the concepts he has worked on the longest: genius clusters.

In the past, most people believed that genius is hereditary. Great men beget great man, and there was nothing anyone could do about it.

Nowadays, however, people tend to talk about collaboration. Or, even more, about how there’s nothing great in the great men of history, since they were mere products of some circumstances, and any genius could have been the next person.

Genius clusters are some middle ground. It seems that, as a rule, a genius appears not only at the same time with another genius, but also at the same place.

Sometimes, a place goes into genius-overload mode.

That’s a genius cluster.

And after talking to Keith Simonton, Eric Weiner decides to visit few such genius clusters and explore their history. His main goal: to uncover why they had become genius clusters.

And where should one start exploring genius clusters if not in Athens?

The place where Western civilization was born. The birthplace of Socrates and Plato as well. And the place where Aristotle moved in his teenage years. Why?

Well, because Plato’s Academy was there. And the Magnetic Theory of Genius may not be an exact science, but it is a fairly intuitive one for that matter: geniuses go where other geniuses are. Because, how would a misfit find his place if he doesn’t find other misfits?

Athens had another advantage: it was located where the trading routes between Phoenicia, Egypt and Babylonia crossed. So, it got the best of all worlds.

Millennium and a half later, while under the Song dynasty, Chinese Hangzhou became a cultural center.

Its comparative advantage?


Plato believed that cities would prosper under enlightened rulers. Had he lived in the 12th century AD, he would have used Hangzhou as an example.

He wouldn’t have been so bowled over by the next city on our list: Florence.

Not because of a lack of genius, though. But, because Florence proved to the world that while geniuses may magnetically attract other geniuses, they are, in turn, as magnetically attracted by money.

A banking family, the Medicis had an abundance of it and didn’t save a penny when it came to science and art. Why would they? If they paid for a church, the Pope (in time, a Medici member himself) would grant them a safe trip to heaven.

The memorable artworks dedicated to them was a little extra on the side.

Just a few centuries later, an unlikely place, Scotland’s Edinburgh, became the genius’ center of the world. Robert Burns, Adam Smith, David Hume, Dugald Stewart, James Young Simpson – you name a great man of the period and the Scots got him.

They also got two other things which worked towards the blossoming of the Scottish Enlightenment. One was a practical mindset embodied in the motto: “Surely, there must be a better way…” And the other was thinkers’ gatherings.

Because, that’s how ideas spread. After all, about this time, just few hundred kilometers to the south, the French Revolution started in their coffeehouses.

And back in Asia, Calcutta started experiencing what Florence did in the 15th century: the Bengali renaissance. Interestingly enough, it had something to do with both Scotland and thinkers’ gettogethers.

How so?

Well, it was a Scottish philanthropist, David Hare, who established the School Book Society which started printed books in both Bengali and English. And these books were later discussed at intellectual Q&A forums, called addas.

OK, not so much “&A”: the addas were all about the questions. Not the goal, but the search for meaning.


No list of genius clusters would be fulfilled if there’s no Vienna in it. In Weiner’s list, it’s present twice. Once because of its musical heritage (Mozart, Beethoven, Mozart) and the second time because of the revolution that was psychoanalysis (Freud, Mahler, Klimt, Mach).

In each case, Vienna serves as evidence for one of the oldest theories on geniuses. Interestingly enough, quite often, these people don’t become geniuses in their birthplaces. And where they do become exceptional – they are immigrants, questioned by everybody but themselves.

Last but not least, the Silicon Valley.

It’s certainly the place to be at the moment if you are member of the creative class.

And, that, in itself, explains how its genius cluster was formed.

After all, Elon Musk didn’t want to go anywhere else.

Key Lessons from “The Geography of Genius”

1.      Geniuses Cluster Around Specific Places
2.      Genius Is Not Born in Isolation
3.      It’s Not Nature vs. Nurture: It’s Both

Geniuses Cluster Around Specific Places

Whether it’s Athena of 5th century BC, Vienna at the turn of the century or nowadays, the Silicon Valley, some places seem to have a magnetic grip on geniuses. So, they cluster around them.

It’s not exactly an easy thing to tell always whether it’s because of the geographical environment or because of the people, but, it seems that once the genius count of a certain place reaches a tipping point, an enlightenment flourishes.

Genius Is Not Born in Isolation

OK, some are. But, they are the exception which proves the rule.

And the rule is this. Wherever there’s a genius cluster, there’s also an abundance of profound and meaningful discussion. ( (Or even not so meaningful if you’re in Calcutta.)

In Athens – they had the agora, and in Florence – the bottegas. In India, they have the addas, and in Paris and Vienna – the coffeehouses.

And, today, in Silicon Valley they have… well, the internet.

Genius clusters are going to be all virtual in the future!

It’s Not Nature vs. Nurture: It’s Both

The general wisdom is that geniuses are either born or made.

Eric Weiner’s trip around the world concludes: it’s both. Geniuses are created at the intersections of people and places. Because, creativity itself, is nothing but a relationship.

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“The Geography of Genius” Quotes

Rather than asking “What is creativity?” a better question is “Where is creativity?” Click To Tweet Culture is the enormous yet invisible ocean in which we swim. Or, to put it in modern, digital terms, culture is a shared IT network. Click To Tweet Geniuses do not pop up randomly—one in Siberia, another in Bolivia—but in groupings. Genius clusters. Click To Tweet Creativity is a relationship, one that unfolds at the intersection of person and place. Click To Tweet Genius, like charity, begins at home. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

Both a memoir and a personal odyssey, “The Geography of Genius” is, as its author claims himself, “a colossal fools’ experiment.” But, the world needs these kinds of experiments, exactly because the world is shaped by people who do crazy things.

True, other than suggesting the application of the book’s finds in your home, “The Geography of Genius” doesn’t reach some final conclusion. But, just like a Bengali adda, it doesn’t need to. The trip is what matters.

And with such a witty and funny guide as Eric Weiner, it can be nothing short o unforgettable.

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The Evolution of Everything Summary

The Evolution of Everything Summary

How New Ideas Emerge, aka How Small Things Transform the World

By now, you already know that evolution is how all life came to be on this planet. What you don’t know is that evolution may be responsible for everything else, whether it’s language or government.

Don’t believe us?

Why don’t we just let Matt Ridley tell you a thing or two.

Who Should Read “The Evolution of Everything”? And Why?

Good ideas don’t just happen in isolation. There are so many things which contribute to their formulation and even more which turn them into theories and trends. Matt Ridley claims that this happens haphazardly, in an unplanned manner.

And you should give heed to his words if you want to know more about how the present world was shaped. It would make an even better read if you like to read about evolution and similar concepts. But, be warned: don’t come unprepared for this trip.

About Matt Ridley

Matt RidleyMatt Ridley is a British biologist and writer, a peer in the House of Lords since 2013. He obtained his Ph.D. in zoology in 1983, before becoming a science editor for “The Economist” and a regular columnist for “The Telegraph.”

He has written several well-received scientific books, including “The Red Queen,” and “The Rational Optimist.”

“The Evolution of Everything Summary”

For the most part of human history, the majority of people genuinely believed that a supreme being created the universe. After all, everything looked so orderly and beautiful that this seemed like a no-brainer.!

In fact, when Isaac Newton formulated the laws of motion and gravitation, he was convinced that he had uncovered the ultimate evidence of intelligent design. If the universe worked like a clockwork mechanism, then it’s only natural that we supposed that someone had built this machine.

His name: God. The Ultimate Watchmaker.

But, about two centuries ago, an unexpected thing happened. Namely, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace uncovered something even more fascinating than God. They found evidence that the natural world, with all its beauty and complexity, created itself, through an ages-long process of “trial and error.”

Its name: Natural Selection. The Blind Watchmaker.

And this changed everything.

Suddenly, we started seeing patterns and realized that the theory of evolution can be applied to many fields of human knowledge.

And Matt Ridley isn’t a kind of person who would argue this. After all, just look at the title of his book! He can’t get enough of evolution. His argument: because that’s the way everything works. Yes, that includes society as well!

We think we have some control over the processes which govern progress – but, no, we don’t! Just like each and every species, everything we see around us evolves in an incremental, unplanned manner.

Everything? Really?

It can’t be!

Yes, it can. A quick glance at the contents of Ridley’s book shows that he intends to stop at nothing! “The Evolution of Everything” comprises of a prologue and an epilogue and sixteen standalone chapters, which cover the evolution of… well, everything.

The universe, the life, genes – OK, that’s physics and biology and pretty much expected! The economy, the education, the government – I see your point, and you can make a case of it. But, leadership, culture, religion – even these?

And what about personality, morality, the mind? Now, you’ve got to be kidding me!

And yes, even technology and the Internet.

Wait a minute, you say?

But, you just mentioned Darwin, Wallace, Newton! You want me to believe that they didn’t do nothing special. You can’t possibly be saying that! After all, they were great men, and, if nothing else, they are responsible for some giant evolutionary leaps!

You’ve got to give me that, at least.

But, Matt Ridley is merciless. As exceptional as they may seem to you – he says triumphantly – they were nothing more but a case of the right person at the right time. In other words, the theories of gravity and evolution would have been formulated by someone else if not by one of these three.

But, how do we know it?

Well, consider something historians of science refer to as “simultaneous invention.” It happens so often that hardly any Nobel Prize (other than the one in literature) is awarded to a single person. Some scientists, however, have gone a step further. They hypothesize that “multiple discoveries” happen not only often, but every time.

Here are some examples for you that are sure to make you wonder!

Have you ever wondered, say, how is it possible that the blast furnace or the crossbow were developed independently in China, Africa, and Europe? Or how did all of Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Joseph Priestley, and Antoine Lavoisier discovered oxygen at around the same time in three different countries? What about evolution, and Darwin and Wallace?

And Ridley has one even better: in the 1870s, no less than 23 people around the globe worked on inventing the light bulb!

You know why?

Because all of the basic elements (glass, electricity, vacuum, and filaments) were there, and because, in Ridley’s opinion, an invention is not exactly a leap, but a recombination. Albert Einstein was the first one to conceptualize the theory of relativity, but had he didn’t, Hendrik Lorentz would have been a name you’d hear much more often.

Because the world was prepared for such a theory.

Now, don’t get us – and Ridley – wrong!

The powerful will always be able to influence the weak. In many cases, they can do just about enough to hurdle things past the tipping point and cause an avalanche of extraordinary events.

However, this doesn’t happen as often as history books – and Malcolm Gladwell – would have us believe.

Quite the opposite: just like God did once, great men receive too much credit. Moreover, we would have been better off without them: just as Lord Acton once wrote, “great men are almost always bad men.”

In other words: they are just interfering with an evolution of everything which tends to make things better.

They are not great suns who lighten up the world. They are much more akin to earthquakes or avalanches.

We’ll adapt either way.

Nobody, but the blind watchmaker knows how.

Key Lessons from “The Evolution of Everything”

1.      Positive Trends Are Products of Evolution
2.      All Inventions Were Inevitable
3.      Enough with the Great Men

Positive Trends Are Products of Evolution

You can plan a thing as much as you like to – it won’t happen unless it was meant to be. Or you can just leave evolution do its work – and hope for the best.

Because, in the long run, the best will come. Step-by-step bottom-up progress is Matt Ridley’s vision of the history of everything, whether it’s the Industrial Revolution or the reduction of science and poverty.

It will happen ­– when the time comes.

All Inventions Were Inevitable

You may think of Isaac Newton and Charles Darwin as scientists who knew so much more than the rest of the world in their heyday, but – news flash – it isn’t so! Did you know, for example, that Gottfried Leibnitz developed the calculus simultaneously with (or even before) Newton?

And that Darwin received a letter from Alfred Russel Wallace explicating the whole theory of evolution while he was working on the publication of “The Origin of Species”?

These are not isolated cases. Inventions because the time was right. And because of the Zeitgeist. Not because of the great people who we celebrate.

That’s why…

Enough with the Great Men

Just like God did for most of human history, the great men we learn about receive just too much credit.

If anything, most of them were a nuisance, impeding the gradual process of bottom-up evolution which got us to where we are. Our world wouldn’t have been that much different even without Thomas Edison and Albert Einstein. Sooner or later, someone else would have discovered what they did.

But, how much more beautiful it would have been without Alexander the Great or Hitler?

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“The Evolution of Everything” Quotes

Change in human institutions, artefacts and habits is incremental, inexorable and inevitable. Click To Tweet If there is one dominant myth about the world, one huge mistake we all make, one blind spot, it is that we all go around assuming the world is much more of a planned place than it is. Click To Tweet We describe the world as if people and institutions were always in charge, when often they are not. Click To Tweet Today we are still in thrall to Great Man history, if only because we like reading biography. Click To Tweet For far too long we have underestimated the power of spontaneous, organic and constructive change driven from below, in our obsession with designing change from above. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

“The Evolution of Everything” is a modern, more nuanced and better researched version of Herbert Spencer’s theory of social Darwinism. It’s an ambitious undertaking, since it covers everything from the universe to the Internet, from language and the mind to morality and personality.

To say that, even so, it doesn’t disappoint would be an understatement. It’s nothing short of brilliant. It’s, however, intended for analytical, well-read readers with a wide-ranging knowledge and a deep focus, so it may not be everyone’s cup of tea. After all, each chapter of the book begins with a quote by Lucretius.

If you don’t know him – don’t bother. Because he may be the least of your problems.

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The Muqaddimah Summary

The Muqaddimah SummaryAn Introduction to History

In general, we as humans have started losing our physical endurance from the day we began thinking. The evolvement process for us and other species never ended.

To compensate for our physical vulnerability, we begun functioning in groups.

Who Should Read “The Muqaddimah”? And Why?

If you are history lover, or eager to study the process of evolution from another standpoint, then this is the book for you.

Don’t hesitate, this “The Muqaddimah” creates a synergy among different collective opinions, and explains the collision.

About Ibn Khaldun

Ibn KhaldunIbn Khaldun’s day of birth is assumed to be 27th May 1352. He was a renowned scholar, philosopher, historian and according to some the founder of sociology and demography.

Ibn is best known for The Muqaddimah, even among Westerners.

“The Muqaddimah Summary”

People used to find peace in social interactions and seeking ways to improve their way of life through various forms of cooperation. In such regards, we have transformed from defenseless to protected. When our ancestors looked for food driven by hunger, the frightening, and blood-thirsty carnivores posed a threat to our existence.

However, according to Ibn Khaldun, God gave us something far more powerful than any weaponry or claws –  the ability of thinking. Over the years we sharpened our senses and developed the native wit for protection issues.

The ability to plunge into a discussion, interact, and think of solution distinguish us as human beings from other species. That’s the basis of survival that aided the humankind for centuries and continues in the same fashion.

The 14th century is enriched with mysteries and dark moments. The never-ending wars carved new mentality that was spontaneously embraced to survive such hostile environment. People who used to live in areas of temperate climate are also known for their tenderness and calmness in both body and mind.

The same thing refers to clothing, surviving, working, etc. The mindset of these people was accompanied by wisdom which ultimately gave birth to a new era, where war was not the only solution.

Nevertheless, the topic of today’s discussion is linked to the differences between cultures, nations, and communities. The author takes on the Berbers as an illustration to this point.

According to his expertise, the North-African Berbers (a large group) who enjoyed the privilege of having wheat and plentiful harvest, were slightly “slower” regarding knowledge and wisdom. On the other hand, the Masumudah Berbers who lived in Morocco, their healthy diet generated and produced a new group of thinkers.

The basic differentiation:

  • Christians walk under the light of their savior Jesus Christ.
  • Buddhist are passionate about the meditation techniques practiced by the Gautama Buddha.
  • Muslims, mostly the Arabic nations follow the guidance of the prophet Muhammad.  

Although this seems like a coincidence, it’s actually an indicator of our innate essence. The embodiment of enlightenment is calmness, which clarifies the soul purification process. There are many terms used to describe this bliss, but in truth, the most natural way to explain it is – God imparts wisdom to your heart.  

Yes, there are thousands of religions and spiritual paths all brought by various prophets, but in this case, we’ll stick to the three widespread collective beliefs. According to Ibn Khaldun, the Qur’an is the most celebrated phenomenon or an accidental masterpiece that brought light on the “dark” Arabia.  

What is the meaning of this?

Well, Ibn lays out some interesting facts such as the Torah is written on behalf of God, the same goes for the Bible, but the Qur’an, on the other hand, is written by God himself. We leave you to judge and interpret this statement.

In a clash of titans, the battlefield will decide – which group dominates. Obviously, absent a strong determination, and energy – a loss is inevitable. To avoid defeat, the leaders of these early organizations had to lift the spirits of all members, put their oratory skills to the test, and push themselves beyond the limits by not doubting the cause as righteous.

The story of God creating the world has many angles and viewpoints, here we are going to stick to the elementary laws of evolution. However, the real question arises from the ashes of morality. From where do our tendencies to do good deeds and commit terrible crimes emerge?

The harsh laws and egoistic reign can produce monsters. Since the beginning of civilization, the rulers and their state regulations laid down the foundation for developing an evil mentality that was consistently spreading among the residents.

We leave you in a dilemma and give you several lessons that you can utilize in life.

Key Lessons from “The Muqaddimah

1.      The power of doubt
2.      The troubling mind
3.      The birth of social groups

The power of doubt

During any struggle, people are prone to shift sides and doubt the outcome. If the other group take as gospel their main motto, the chances of victory increase. The victor is going to be decided after the test of faith!  

The troubling mind

According to the author, the devil is responsible for whispering all the mean things. In other words, we are tested to resist the temptation to follow that evil voice inside our head.

The origin of evil has its roots deeply embedded in animal consciousness as well. The battle for survival is responsible for getting the best and the worst of each one of us, but what about the pure evil?

If that’s the case, say thanks to the royal authority.

The birth of social groups

The strong belief and faith give rise to groups which are bounded by a sacred feeling.

The infiltration is only feasible if the new member shares the same passion and understands the intimacy among the participants.

This is a dangerous combination if we take into consideration the many wars that occurred between such groups.

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“The Muqaddimah” Quotes

When trouble arose between 'All and Mu'awiyah as a necessary consequence of group feeling, they were guided in (their dissensions) by the truth and by independent judgment. They did not fight for any worldly purpose or over preferences of… Click To Tweet The term of life of a dynasty does not normally exceed three generations. For in the first generation are still preserved the characteristic features of rough, uncivilized rural life, such as hard conditions of life, courage, ferocity,… Click To Tweet Throughout history many nations have suffered a physical defeat, but that has never marked the end of a nation. But when a nation has become the victim of a psychological defeat, then that marks the end of a nation. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

We were amazed by the accuracy of information, and the examples that Ibn used to illustrate a point. The Muqaddimah is one of those books that cannot get old!

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The Innovators Summary

The Innovators Summary

How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution

You’re reading this on your or on your mobile phone, while listening to music or watching TV.

But, have you ever asked yourself how it all came to be? And why your grandparents didn’t have the pleasure of doing any of these things when they were your age?

Whether you know them or not, the people Walter Isaacson writes about in “The Innovators” created the world of your today.

And it’s time you learn at least a name or two.

Who Should Read “The Innovators”? And Why?

The Innovators” is a book about technology written for the general public. This means that it presents complex ideas in a manner comprehensible even to someone only marginally familiar with the relevant concepts.

So, the more you know about computers and the internet, the less you might enjoy the book. Read it for the great story it tells if you are such a person. Read it because you should know the people the book talks about if you are an IT novice.

About Walter Isaacson

Walter IsaacsonWalter Isaacson is an American journalist and author. He is a Professor of History at Tulane University, and a CEO of the Aspen Institute. In the past, he has also been the Chairman of CNN and the Managing Editor of “Time” magazine.

An exquisite storyteller, Isaacson has written few acclaimed biographies. The most notable among them are “Steve Jobs,” “Einstein,” and “Leonardo da Vinci.”

“The Innovators Summary”

In 1841, Scottish writer and philosopher Thomas Carlyle wrote that “the history of the world is but the biography of great men.” When Walter Isaacson wrote “Steve Jobs” few years back, he must have believed Carlyle.

Twenty years after Carlyle, the English polymath Herbert Spencer suggested otherwise. According to him, history is a collaboration. And all great men exist because of other great – and even not so great – men.

And that’s the starting point of “The Innovators.”

It’s a book that is quite difficult to summarize. It covers almost two centuries of history and talks about at least twenty different giants of innovation. The innovators are grouped around ten different innovations, and framed by two chapters dedicated to a forgotten pioneer.

Ada, the Countess of Lovelace.

The innovations discussed are, in sequence of almost standalone chapters, the computer, programming, the transistor, the microchip, video games, the internet, the personal computer, software, online, and the web.

The innovators are almost everybody who matters in the digital world, from Charles Babbage and Alan Turing, through John von Neumann and J. C. R. Licklider, to Steve Jobs and Wikipedia’s Jimbo Wales.

It’s really an amazing tour de force of historical research and technological savvy. of which only few writers are capable nowadays.

Isaacson’s greatest achievement in “The Innovators”, however, is something else. It’s his ability to connect seemingly unrelated episodes of history to show that the presence is deeply rooted in the past. In other words, Wikipedia didn’t start with Jimbo Wales or Tim Berners-Lee, but with Ada Lovelace and the Analytical Engine.

Don’t believe us?

Here’s just one of the many similar threads.

Microsoft Windows dominates the PC market. But, some of its best parts were inspired by Apple’s innovations. And it all began when IBM commissioned Microsoft to develop an operating system for their PCs in 1980s.

And here’s where it gets interesting!

You see, IBM wasn’t always called IBM. It was originally founded more than a century ago as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company. Which in turn, was what the Hollerith Electric Tabulating System evolved into.

Wondering what was there before it?

A US Census Bureau worker named Herman Hollerith. He believed that he could automatize the process of collecting and categorizing census data with punch cards.

Was that the first prototype for the modern computer?

Not by a long shot.

Enter the Analytical Engine imagined by Charles Babbage and Ada Lovelace. Who, by the way, was the only legitimate daughter of England’s first superstar poet, George Gordon Byron. Who…

But, wait… that’s a completely different story.

Key Lessons from “The Innovators”

1.      Standing on the Shoulders of Giants
2.      The Power of Collaborations
3.      The Next Phase

Standing on the Shoulders of Giants

If “The Innovators” can teach you one thing, it’s certainly this: starting from scratch is not an option. Not because you can’t – but because you shouldn’t.

No matter which discipline you’re interested in, somebody before you has already given you a head start. And when we say “head” – we do mean head.

Just think of that beautiful metaphor by Isaac Newton. If I have seen something more, he said, it was because I was a dwarf standing on the shoulder of giants.

Just as you can – because of these inventors.

The Power of Collaborations

They don’t say “two heads are better than one” for nothing. And “The Innovators” proves this over and over again.

Google needed both Sergey Brin and Larry Page. Apple wouldn’t have been Apple if there was only Steve Jobs – it needed a Steve Wozniak too. And as important as Bill Gates is, Microsoft’s “idea man” was actually Paul Allen.

The Next Phase

You can get a glimpse of the future if you got through enough volumes of history. And Walter Isaacson has done his fair share of historical research.

His opinion?

The next phase will mean the end of pouring old wines (books, songs, movies) into new digital bottles (eBooks, streaming services). It will be something different and totally unexpected.

Brace yourself.

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“The Innovators” Quotes

The computer and the Internet are among the most important inventions of our era, but few people know who created them. Click To Tweet Most of the innovations of the digital age were done collaboratively. Click To Tweet The Internet was originally built to facilitate collaboration. By contrast, personal computers, especially those meant to be used at home, were devised as tools for individual creativity. Click To Tweet The truest creativity of the digital age came from those who were able to connect the arts and sciences. Click To Tweet New platforms, services, and social networks are increasingly enabling fresh opportunities for individual imagination and collaborative creativity. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

“The Innovators” is a product of labor and love. So, much like the innovations it analyes. You know, those things you love so much because they facilitate your labor: the computer and the internet. The book is an epic account of their history, which is at times fascinating and eye-opening, and at times thrilling and moving. Not to mention, indispensable – at all times.

However, if you are not a fan of history, “The Innovators” is not for you. It is almost 600 pages long and abounds with names, biographies and connections which may tire you. In addition, if you want a more thorough approach, then you are surely not going to like Isaacson’s motto that getting into more details is the same as ruining a good story.

Now, it doesn’t matter if Isaacson’s right or not. The story he tells here, even if not flawless and exhaustive, is certainly a great one.

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A History of the World in 6 Glasses Summary

A History of the World in 6 Glasses Summary

How Your Favorite Drinks Changed the World

Whether you’re drinking wine or beer, or prefer non-alcoholic beverages such as coffee and Coca-Cola, chances are you’ve never spent even a minute to reflect on how they got to your table. Tom Standage has spent few years of his life.

His conclusions?

That, in fact, you can tell the history of our world by telling the history of six of our favorite drinks. In this manner, “A History of the World in 6 Glasses” is a unique book. It doesn’t really talk about wars and revolutions – and yet, it talks about changes.

Drinks caused important global events. Did you know that? Would you want to learn it?

Learn it with us – in about a thousand words!

Who Should Read “A History of the World in 6 Glasses”? And Why?

There are three answers to these questions.

The first one is a bit obvious. If you are a beer enthusiast, a wine connoisseur, coffee addict, tea fanatic, spirits fan, or a Coca-Cola lover – you’ll certainly want to read this book. Or at least two chapters of it, concerning the beverage of your choice.

The second answer is less apparent but as spot on: historians. Especially those who want to read about the events they already know – from a different perspective.

Finally, the third answer is the most interesting one: trivia aficionados. So, if you’re one of those people who reads books for fun, and if you are interested in details you have no practical use of, you’ll find plenty of them in “A History of the World in 6 Glasses.”

About Tom Standage

Tom StandageTom Standage (1969) is a British journalist and author. An Oxford graduate (engineering and computer science), he has worked for The Guardian and The Economist and has been published in The New York Times and Wired.

Standage is interested in history analogies and lesser-known aspects of history. In addition to “A History of the World in 6 Glasses”, he has written “An Edible History of Humanity,” “The Victorian Internet” and three more history books.

You can find more about him at his website.

“A History of the World in 6 Glasses Summary”

Who knew that the history of the world could be recounted in the history of six drinks?

Tom Standage did. And he does it in 300 pages, about 50 pages and two sections per drink, totaling twelve of the most attention-grabbing book chapters you’ll ever read.

Let’s summarize them a drink by drink.

1.      Beer

The beer was accidentally discovered as early as the Ice Age in the Fertile Crescent (it’s somewhere around here). People there find out that gruel made from grains soaked in water turned into an intoxicating drink after a couple of days.

They loved it! So, they decided to produce it.

Here’s where it gets really interesting!

This is one of the reasons why they decided to settle, farm, and eventually store grains. You’ve read that right! If not for that sparkling feel in your mouth when drinking beer, people might have never discovered agriculture.

No wonder then that the poet of “The Epic of Gilgamesh,” the world’s oldest work of literature, describes beer as “the drink of the civilized man.”

Beer might be one of the reasons we have a civilization in the first place.

2.      Wine

Not so much for the Ancient Greeks, though. You see, they didn’t like beer.

Who knows? They might have known that beer was as old as the Neanderthals and considered themselves too new age for it. Also, their climate was as good as it gets. So, they went for another drink: wine.

Half of Ancient Greek literature and philosophy may be written or orally transmitted in a state of slight intoxication. Wine was the drink of choice for the intellectuals. Who knows how many famous poems they have written to celebrate its effects?

But, not everyone could afford it. It was expensive, and it was one of the ways the Greeks disseminated their culture all around. The myth of Dionysus, their god of wine, is evidence enough: it’s ever-present throughout the Mediterranean.

When the Ancient Romans invaded the Balkan Peninsula, wine became a symbol of democracy. It was cheap and was enjoyed by both rulers and slaves. But, some types were deemed better than others and were reserved for the high class.

Because, as is the case in all democracies, the rich are a bit more equal.

3.      Alcoholic Spirits

Interestingly enough, these were invented by the Arabs. Due to religious reasons, however, they never really got to drink them. The Europeans, on the other hand, loved them.


Blame it on alchemical pseudoscience and sugar cravings! And blame part of Europe’s conquest of the Americas on their desire to acquire more sugar.

Spirits played a part in the American War of Independence too. The Molasses Act of 1733 asked Americans to pay taxes on molasses imported from non-British colonies.

The Americans ignored the Act and went on smuggling in French molasses.

Though, the independence of the United States – as everybody knows – is much more related to another drink.

But, we’ll get to that later!

4.      Coffee

First off – coffee!

Once again invented in the Arab world, coffee became popular in Europe during the seventeenth century.

And you won’t believe how!

It was because of contaminated water and wine. People made coffee and wine with boiling water, so, at this point in history, they were safer to drink than water. However, intellectuals wanted to be sober from time to time, so they preferred coffee.

Fast forward few decades and coffeehouses are suddenly alive with spirited intellectual debates and political vigor!

Charles II – who, ironically, attempted to shut down coffeehouses – wouldn’t have returned from exile if coffeehouses hadn’t granted an unprecedented freedom of speech to the intellectuals.

Even more: the French Revolution started in the coffeehouses of Paris. Maybe, if it weren’t for coffee, we would have never had the songs of “Les Mis”!

5.      Tea

Tea was also a drink related to social status.

It was drunk for centuries in China, but it became fashionable once the royal dynasties of Europe started drinking it. The lower society strata always want to imitate the higher classes, so they started drinking tea too.

Suddenly, everybody was drinking tea in Britain. And since Britain was the largest colonial force in the world, tea was all the rage wherever you were on the face of the planet.

In addition to making the lives of the poor a bit better – it helped workers stay awake and healthy – tea also made the rich richer. The East India Company, especially. It employed a small country and earned more than the British government itself.

However, when the Tea Act of 1773 allowed the company to export tea to the Americas tax-free, enough was enough for the American revolutionaries.

Boston Tea Party, anyone?

6.      Coca-Cola

If spirits and tea incited America to fight for its independence, Coca-Cola helped her dominate the world.

Originally intended for medicinal purposes, John Pemberton’s drink soon grew to become America’s favorite drink. However, nobody had even heard of it before the Second World War on the other side of the Atlantic and the Pacific.

And then it happened!

The first of Coca-Cola’s great marketing campaigns. Robert Woodruff, then-CEO of Coca-Cola, ordered that “every man in a uniform gets a bottle of Coca-Cola for 5 cents, wherever he is and whatever it costs the company.”

The rest, as they say, is history.

Here’s one fact you may find nowhere else: Georgy Zhukov, the most famous Soviet general of World War II, liked Coca-Cola so much that he asked the company if they could make it colorless so that he can smuggle it for vodka.

It was the Cold War, you see, and Coca-Cola was the symbol of the United States.

Half a century later – it still is.

Key Lessons from “A History of the World in 6 Glasses”

1.      Each Glass Has Its Own History
2.      Drinks Can Change the World
3.      Nothing Wrong to Like Your Drinks

Each Glass Has Its Own History

“A History of the World in 6 Glasses” is not exactly a history of the drinks in your glass. It’s a history of the human civilization told through a different prism.

However, it’s great that you can have a different viewpoint from time to time when telling the story of humanity. That way, you’ll never forget that, as much as it is a story of great leaders and merciless wars, history is also a story of the little things.

Such as your coffee.

Drinks Can Change the World

Interestingly enough, these little things are not as little if scrutinized in detail.

Suddenly, you realize that for the American citizens of the 18th century, there was nothing more important than their rum and tea.

Just think about it!

Wouldn’t you go out on a protest if the government bans you from drinking coffee in the morning or Coca-Cola while watching a movie?

See you at the barricades!

Nothing Wrong to Like Your Drinks

If Tom Standage’s book can teach you anything, it can certainly teach you that whatever you’re drinking at this moment, was – and is – adored as a drink by millions and millions of people. It has either made people’s lives better, and/or has brought down powerful empires.

So, drink your beverage carefree.

That is, if you’re moderate.

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“A History of the World in 6 Glasses” Quotes

Fermentation and civilization are inseparable. (via John Ciardi) Click To Tweet Whether in stone-age villages, Mesopotamian banqueting halls, or modern pubs and bars, beer has brought people together since the dawn of civilization. Click To Tweet Wine displaced beer to become the most civilized and sophisticated of drinks—a status it has maintained ever since, thanks to its association with the intellectual achievements of Ancient Greece. Click To Tweet Appreciation of wines from different places began with the Greeks, and the link between the type of wine and the social status of the drinker was strengthened by the Romans. Click To Tweet Rum was the liquid embodiment of both the triumph and the oppression of the first era of globalization. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

“A History of the World in 6 Drinks” is written in a charming and absorbing style and is everything but boring from start to finish. Neatly divided into twelve easy-to-digest chapters and six parts, the book guides the reader from the Ice Age to the Second World War without ever sounding tiresome or dull.

Too bad we didn’t have an opportunity to learn history from books such as this! It would have certainly made those classes much more interesting and the students much more attentive.

But, then again, it’s never late to fix this.

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Supreme Command Summary

Supreme Command Summary Soldiers, Statesmen, and Leadership in Wartime

A good state leader is not necessarily a good military leader. And vice versa.

Contrary to the “normal” theory, politicians fight and win wars.

How’s that?

Scroll down and figure it out.

Who Should Read “Supreme Command”? And Why?

You still believe that generals and soldiers win wars? How sure are you about that? Read this.

Interested in wars, how they are fought, and how they are won or lost? Give it a go.

Wanting to merely find out something more about the great minds of some of the most powerful leaders, as well as their tactics and politics? Sure, you came to the right place.

About Eliot A. Cohen

Eliot A. CohenEliot A. Cohen is a political scientist and a professor at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced

International Studies at Johns Hopkins University. He used to be a counselor in the United States Department of State.

“Supreme Command Summary”

Is it possible to be both a successful politician or a businessman, and be a great general at the same time?

If your answer is “no” then you are one of those believing that when it comes to war, it is up to the military to take care of it.

However, throughout history, we can find many examples of statesmen who took the matter into their hands because they considered it a political thing. In fact, they weren’t far from the truth.

So, let us introduce you to some of them.

The American One

I believe that there is hardly anyone who hasn’t heard of Abraham Lincoln. One of those “crazy” men who thought that if you are a skillful statesman, you can also be an accomplished general. A belief he proved right.

Even though he lived in a difficult time when new things, such as armaments and ways of transportation, were introduced, he successfully managed to have everything under control. He always knew what he wanted to do and how he wanted to do it.

Le Tigre”

Known as “The Tiger”, this former journalist got the control of the French army in his hands during the First World War, at the age of 76. And he managed to endure.

According to Georges Clemenceau, the war was a political issue, so that’s why he never left the generals to deal with it. Interested in the real work and problems of his soldiers, and indeed wanting to help them, he was continually giving them visits in the field.

The British Man

This man was unlike the others. Winston Churchill was very precautious and wanted to know even the smallest details of everything. Respected were especially those who freely spoke their minds in front of him, even when they weren’t on the same page.

Although this may be true, he never missed a chance to control his soldiers’ work. He made everyone undergo a challenging test interrogation, and surprisingly or not, not everyone could pass it.

The Zionist

David Ben-Gurion, the statesman of the Promised Land, was the man who made a complete reform in the state’s army. He started a program called “the Seminar” which helped him efficiently detect the problems. After he found out what wasn’t right, he began to build an army this country needed.

He wasn’t afraid to change the current, at the time, military officers. In fact, he knew exactly where to look to find the problems, and that’s what made him prepared for the war with the Arab armies in 1948.

In contrast to these examples, we have Vietnam. Believe it or not, the armed force in Vietnam wеre entirely in the hands of the generals. Although this may sound as a smart decision for those who consider the war as a purely military issue, the outcome shows them the contrary.

As a matter of fact, the first Gulf War is a perfect proof that the war is an exclusively political thing. Despite the efforts of the generals to win this war, without the help of their statesman, they weren’t able to triumph over their opponents.

Key Lessons from “Supreme Command”

1.      Your work and dedication are important
2.      Don’t be afraid to bump into problems
3.      Believe in yourself

Your work and dedication are important

What’s the one thing all these four men have in common? The answer is simple – they worked. They show you how successful you can be if you put some effort to get things done.  

They didn’t let others decide on their behalf. That’s how it is in life. In order to succeed you have to do everything yourself, and you can do it, but you need to know or to learn how to.

Don’t be afraid to bump into problems

Usually, we are scared of the problems that can appear while we are working on something important. Hey, life is not perfect, nor are we. The thing is, if there are no problems, nothing can be rightly done.

Do you have a problem? Great! Sit down and find a way to fix it. That’s how it works. And David Ben-Gurion is a perfect example of that.

Believe in yourself

There will always be someone who will tell you that you can’t do something. But it’s your job to prove them wrong. Just like these four men. Many believed it wasn’t their job to take control over the army, or that they just were not right for it because it wasn’t their field of work.

So, what happened? Today they are some of the most famous men in the history of mankind.  

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“Supreme Command” Quotes

The difficulty is that the great war statesman do just those improper things - and, what is more, it is because they do so that they succeed. Click To Tweet Collectively, the new technologies increased the importance of high command at the political center: a single field commander could not now hope to duplicate the feats of a Napoleon or Wellington, much though they indeed aspired to do so. Click To Tweet Clemenceau, perhaps because of his years as a journalist and before that as a clinician, understood the importance of detailed information - the kind acquired not by reading reports but by looking people in the eye, observing the way they… Click To Tweet War statesmanship, in Churchill’s view, focused at the apex of government an array of considerations and calculations that even those one rung down could not fully fathom. Click To Tweet All concerned knew who was master, and if each of these statesmen could offer generous praise none of them would, in the final analysis, relax his grip over his sorely tried subordinates, to the very end. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

Although “Supreme Command” has a lot to offer, to various types of readers, it feels like something is missing, or something is too much. The parts where Cohen discusses Churchill and Gurion are rather more subjective than offering an objective analysis. Cohen seems to even hero-worship them at times.  

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The Secret Man Summary

The Secret Man SummaryThe Story of Watergate’s Deep Throat

There is hardly anyone who does not know about or has not heard of the Watergate scandal.

Before it happened, Bob Woodward had failed big time in his first attempt to become a Washington Post reporter. And little did he know then that he was going to become an “agent” to a “spymaster” like Mark Felt.

This book answers many of the unanswered questions regarding Watergate.

So, let’s dive into it.

Who Should Read “The Secret Man”? And Why?

It is recommended to anyone who has even the slightest interest in the Watergate scandal. To anyone who wants to find out something more about the mysterious Deep Throat, and his relationship with Bob Woodward. And especially to the ones who want to get to know the participants in the Watergate scandal better.

Or, simply, to anyone who likes an enthralling book from a New York Times Bestselling Author.

About Bob Woodward

Bob WoodwardBob Woodward is a synonym for American investigative journalism, having covered the Watergate scandal, together with colleague Carl Bernstein. Bob Woodward has worked as a reporter for The Washington Post since 1971 and is an associate editor there at the moment. His and Carl Bernstein’s work was called “maybe the single greatest reporting effort of all time”.

Bob Woodward has written 18 best-selling books on American politics. One of them is his account of the Bush Administration’s decision to go to war in Iraq.

“The Secret Man Summary”

Who could say that only one moment can change one’s life? For Bob Woodward, the young Navy lieutenant, it was the accidental meeting he had with W. Mark Felt, the FBI assistant director, in the early 70s in the White House.  

That day Woodward received an advice from this unknown, at that time, a man which made him fight for what he wanted in his life. After that, they stayed in touch, but he couldn’t imagine that his relationship with this man would make a change in the political history of the US.

So, do you want to know how everything began?

It all began with Woodward’s interview in The Washington Post after he decided to try himself as a reporter.  He was given a two-week trial, but as he didn’t have any experience in this field, he didn’t get the job.

Instead, he was offered a job at The Montgomery Country Sentinel where he wrote few top-selling reports which gave him back his place at the Post.

And this was only the beginning.

Actually, Woodward was one of the eight reporters designated to report on a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters when five men were arrested.

Those men were thought to be aligned with President Nixon, and their job was to record the conversations of political opponents and people of whom Nixon was suspicious. This event is known as the Watergate scandal.

Wanting to know more about this event, Woodward called his FBI friend, Felt, who started leaking some intel to him. But he had one request – to keep everything secret.

You might be wondering why Felt was doing all of that.

As a matter of fact, he was doing it because he thought that he was the only person that could save the FBI from being put in jeopardy. Also, he felt responsible to do something about this, because the person that took the case over, L. Patrick Gray, was actually a political ally to the president.

But there was one problem.

Even though Felt was given a nickname, Deep Throat, his identity was about to be revealed a couple of times. Fortunately, when Nixon found out about Felt, in 1972, he was too afraid to do anything because Felt could reveal some powerful information about him.

A few years later, when he was giving testimony about FBI break-ins, he was directly asked by one of the jurors if he was Deep Throat. That was the moment when he was saved by the assistant attorney, Stanley Pottinger, who dropped out the question.

He was also about to be exposed in 1980, when Richard Cohen, a columnist for Firebrand Post, informed Woodward that he would reveal Felt as his source. Nevertheless, Woodward stopped him by denying the truth.

Unfortunately, in 1980, Felt was found guilty of authorizing criminal actions against the Weathermen, a fictive group, but was later pardoned by the President. After this, Felt and Woodward stopped their communication until 2000, when they finally met again. But, at that time, Felt had already lost his memory and didn’t remember anything.

However, at the end, their secret was revealed in 2005, when Felt’s attorney gave this information to Vanity Fair magazine. In the article, they freed the Post from any responsibility.

Key Lessons from “The Secret Man”

1.      A complete stranger can change your life
2.      It’s all about the money
3.      The truth comes out eventually

A complete stranger can change your life

When Bob Woodward got to the White House and met Felt, in 1970, he was going through a period when he was questioning everything about his life. But before entering there, he didn’t know that this unknown man, and the words “follow your heart” that he heard from him, would change his life, and resolve his life dilemmas.    

At that moment, he didn’t know how important this meeting, and this gentleman, would be for him.

It’s all about the money

Felt was of great importance for Woodward’s report on the Watergate scandal. He was giving him information that not many people knew. But sometimes Felt was giving him only some keywords, and then he needed to follow those words to find new proof. He knew that when it came to politicians, it was all about the money, and the power. That’s why he advised Woodward to follow the money flow.

Even though sometimes the FBI was revealing information before Woodward did, Felt believed in his mission to stop the FBI from being politically compromised.

The truth comes out eventually

Eventually, Felt was the one accused of authorizing criminal activities against some fictional group. But, luckily, his innocence was recognized and he was saved by President Reagan from being sentenced.

And as every secret is revealed sooner or later, every truth comes to the surface after some time. So, 20 years after the Watergate scandal, the truth about Deep Throat was exposed in the Vanity Fair magazine.

“The Secret Man” Quotes

There is probably no period in history about which we know so much, no presidency that has been on the autopsy table to have every part dissected and rummaged through so entirely. Click To Tweet I am disappointed and a little angry at both myself and him for never digging out a more exacting explanation, a clearer statement of his reasoning and motivation. Click To Tweet The law and the rules had been set aside and subverted. Mark Felt was driven to expose what was going on. Click To Tweet He was careful and protective of himself - remarkably so. Or perhaps he calibrated it just right. He got the story out without exposing himself. Click To Tweet It was essential that we not break faith with Felt, nor violate the journalistic principle of protecting the confidentiality of a source. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

“The Secret Man” gives us more information about the Watergate scandal, as well as the ongoing developments at the time. However, the book does seem a bit short, rushed, not that insightful, and at moments incomplete. The readers are eager to find out a lot more about Deep Throat.

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Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy Summary

Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy SummaryHow many of you can interpret different ideologies, and resist the temptation to be inclined towards one or another? 

We summarize Joseph A. Schumpeter’s findings and theories and offer a full package of “Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy”.

Who Should Read “Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy”? And Why?

In general, many individuals would get discouraged by the year this book is being published; a 1942 classic seems a little out-dated right? – The truth is, Joseph, left a legacy of information and ideas that no other material can outpower. From today’s perspective, we can really see, whether he was right or wrong. Before you jump into conclusion, you should put yourself in his shoes, and perceive the society from a different standpoint.

Why is that crucial?

Burning the midnight oil will not help you to grasp the meaning of this breathtaking classic if you fail to satisfy certain criteria or have some satisfactory expertise in the field. To sum it up, “Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy” is not recommendable for beginners in the world of economy.

In all honesty, we warmly recommended: “Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy” to history lovers and people who are no longer bounded to think in a certain way, which allows them to spark their free-flowing ideas. Go into the depths of the economy, and feel the transition between the systems.  

About Joseph A. Schumpeter

Joseph A. SchumpeterJoseph A. Schumpeter is one celebrated figure of the twentieth century. He is warmly welcomed in the club of world’s most celebrated economists of all time. Joseph was born on February 8th, 1883, in Triesch, located in the Czech Republic. He served as a Minister of Finance for the Austrian government, from 1919 to 1920, and later on, he became a professor at Harvard University.

“Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy Summary”

The mastery of Joseph A. Schumpeter’s methods and intellectual capacity makes today’s economists look like second-rate scholars without any expertise. He doesn’t rely on any ideology, he summarizes the main findings of every concept, and analyze them impartially.

Many people even in the modern age, are thrilled by the discoveries he made in the 20th century. According to them, Joseph is considered to be one of the most prominent personalities in the previous century, especially in the world of economy.

Learn more:

Only a man of impeccable reputation and towering stature such as Schumpeter is allowed to criticize Marx while praising his ideas to some extent. Are you confused? – Well, if it makes it easier, so are we. Marx’s claim that the capitalism will eventually collapse is the foundation of communist ideology, practiced by many countries back in the days and even now.

In recent years, many theories, clues, and facts contradict this claim, but Joseph surprised everyone when he declared – Marx was probably right.

Stay with us to find the particulars related to this claim:

In the air, an incentive of great importance is felt. It’s not unusual that Schumpeter doesn’t condemn socialism based on personal agenda, as most people would do. He embarks on a journey and explains his revelations such as – socialism may endanger the free-market.

All of them are backed by conducting an extensive analysis and investigations. According to him, the society transforms into the realm of globalization, even though the term used by him was probably different. News all around the world, are affecting each and every country, that is an untold truth.

Here’s how:

There are no free-zones because everything occurring across the borders should result in a reaction back home. He was referring to both communist, capitalist, and democratic ideology. Greet the news with angst, if you are against oppressed economies. Many of his claims are highly linked to capitalism’s collapse.

When the Soviet Union was almost at the height of its military power, and worldly influence, before WW2 many democratic countries feared a revolution as a consequence of an exploited workforce. Joseph rejected this claim and explained the problem in details.

Don’t go anywhere, and learn more about the divisions existing between these ideologies:

Once again, we are facing a tough time, change in state governance is a challenge that lies ahead. However, the proletariat was not the actual danger; the real threat came from the class of elites who planned to take control over institutions and thus install a system of centralized command.

On the other hand, he misjudged why this process took place. Economic instabilities are generated from capitalist rulers was a theory that didn’t pay off as well. It would be ignorant not to mention, that capitalist countries control a large portion of the world’s wealth.

Key Lessons from “Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy”

1.      Theory into Practice – failure
2.      You be the judge
3.      For a moment, forget about your background

Theory into Practice – failure

Joseph A. Schumpeter also questions Marx’s controversial vision that capitalism will ultimately lead to lesser and lesser investment opportunities. The stagnating economies are on its way, to destroy the world’s prosperity – said Marx.   

You be the judge

The question that draws a lot of attention, Was Karl Marx, correct? What if, his methods were only appropriate for different time or era? Don’t wrap your head around this question, let’s move slowly and resolve this mystery.

First and foremost, Marx’s predictions that the capitalist economies are too competitive, and will ultimately lead to a catastrophe were partially correct.

For a moment, forget about your background

Your level of education plays a pivotal role in understanding the fully intriguing treatise between different ideologies. Although you may be inclined towards one or another state governance, this book entices you to adopt a neutral approach, when analyzing the Joseph A. Schumpeter’s theories.

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“Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy” Quotes

Geniuses and prophets do not usually excel in professional learning, and their originality, if any, is often due precisely to the fact that they do not. Click To Tweet This civilization is rapidly passing away, however. Let us rejoice or else lament the fact as much as every one of us likes, but do not let us shut our eyes to it. Click To Tweet The public mind has by now so thoroughly grown out of humor with it as to make condemnation of capitalism and all its works a foregone conclusion---almost a requirement of the etiquette of discussion. Click To Tweet As a matter of practical necessity, socialist democracy may eventually turn out to be more of a sham than capitalist democracy ever was. In any case, that democracy will not mean increased personal freedom. Click To Tweet Capitalism Survive?—I have tried to show that a socialist form of society will inevitably emerge from an equally inevitable decomposition of capitalist society. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

The only thing missing in this book is perhaps the level of applicability, other than historians not many people are too concerned with what has happened, they are more troubled by today’s reality.

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Faith of my Fathers Summary

A Family Memoir

The two role models in Senator John McCain’s life were both admirals: his granddad, John (Stew) Sidney McCain Sr. and his dad, John (Jack) Sidney McCain Jr. As the child of a maritime officer, McCain moved most of the time. He was rambunctious, yet he acknowledges his mom for showing him how to find bliss in life and how to fight difficulty. Since the family moved so regularly, McCain had to make friends quickly. He attempted to grow profound connections although he knew they were bound to be interrupted. While he laments the companions he lost in his life, he acknowledges that misfortune as a reality of military life. He went to boarding school at age 15, went to mandatory daily chapel, and tried to qualify equally in both academics and athletics.

A couple of months after his secondary school graduation, his dad took him to the U.S. Maritime Academy at Annapolis, for which he had been preparing for as long as he can remember. However, he feared it. Everybody took similar courses and persevered through the same initiation process. In the end, he graduated fifth from the bottom of his class. He discovered that to build self-respect, he needed to serve a larger purpose – a lesson that changed his life. Accordingly, to his new insight, he went to flight school in Pensacola, got hitched and in 1966, left to fight in Vietnam.

On October 6, 1967, McCain went on a mission, flying over Hanoi, which had the most significant anti-aircraft framework ever utilized as a part of the battle. At 9,000 feet, his radar showed that a SAM rocket was following him, yet he continued onward and discharged his bombs on his objective. He was at around 3,500 feet when a SAM brushed a wing off his plane. He ejected, yet hit the plane, and broke the two arms and his knee. Finally, he landed on a lake in Hanoi, from where they took him to a jail nicknamed the “Hanoi Hilton.”

He could not eat for days, as a consequence of his untreated wounds and injuries. At the point when his captors found out that his dad was an admiral, they sent him to a hospital where he got blood and glucose. Following a month and a half in the hospital, they sent him back to jail. While enduring fever and dysentery, he was sent to another prison, where he started two years of confinement, which tested him in every way possible. He created memory games, offended the guards, prayed, and performed various scenes from motion pictures and books. Just like all the other prisoners, he experienced wild feelings as well. The constant anxiety showed him that love and honor persist in any conditions. One of the POWs’ basic exercises was speaking with different detainees using codes and notes. They talked into cups squeezed against the walls that divided them. To keep hope alive, they remembered the names of various detainees in case somebody got discharged. McCain refers to this correspondence, particularly with the man in the neighboring cell, as one of the things that kept him alive.

Being a war prisoner gave McCain essential insights and taught him valuable lessons, including the need for balance between his independence and dependence on others. He understood that being associated with other individuals made him more autonomous and all the freer.

Who is this book for

In this personal history, U.S. Senator John McCain writes about the persons and situations that played a significant role in forming his pre-political life. He talks about the influence his family members and childhood events had on his life and career: first his grandfather, then his father, and moreover his training. Furthermore, McCain commits whatever remains of the book to his imprisonment in North Vietnam. He presents his life as a POW, hard five years that influenced him profoundly and installed his faith in duty, strength, and comradeship. Readers who are more interested in finding out about McCain’s political path should find another book on the topic since he does not cover them here. We recommend this book to those who would like to reveal what created McCain’s value system and political power, presented between the lines of this family saga and convincing war story.

Author’s expertise and short biography

John McCain has served two terms in the U.S. House of Representatives and has been a senator from Arizona since 1986. He has four children and seven grandchildren and lives in Phoenix with his wife, Cindy. Mark Salter has been McCain’s administrative assistant since 1993.

Key Lessons from “Faith of My Fathers”

1.      Family Secrets
2.      Demands of Honor
3.      Lessons Learned

Family Secrets

At age 61, Stew finished his duty in Tokyo, seeing Japan’s surrender, and went home to California. At the gathering celebrating his return, he had a heart attack and passed on. Sometime later, John McCain read a book that uncovered a family secret: around three months before his granddad’s heart assault, the Navy had taken away his charge. The reason behind this was that he postponed an order from Halsey to turn around the fleet’s course to evade a hurricane. The storm destroyed 141 planes, damaged ships, and killed six mariners. Ensuing stories demonstrate that he was altogether a Navy man and a great individualist who lived heartily. His men loved him, and he cried when perusing loss reports. In his childhood, Sen. Pleased with his warrior ancestry; John McCain concluded that he needed to contribute to his family’s record.

Demands of Honor

John Sidney McCain Jr. entered the U.S. Naval Academy at 16 years of age. He was 5’6″ tall and 110 pounds, and thus toughed out the tiring physical demands. However, he positioned in the last 15% of his class academically. He earned almost the maximum number of bad marks he could get without being ousted. In the wake of graduating and being rejected for flight school, he joined the submarine. Jack cherished everything about the Navy, was sincere and prayed every day. Conversely to the right habits, he chain-smoked and drank intensely until he kicked the bucket.

Lessons Learned

In 1968, McCain’s captors offered to discharge him, which, he later found was a publicity move in response to his dad’s assignment as the top commander of the U.S. Army in Vietnam. The foe was planning to demonstrate unique treatment to the admiral’s child over different POWs. However, McCain rejected the offer since it disregarded the Code and would have furnished his captors with a propaganda triumph. The Code stated that detainees could be discharged just in the order in which they imprisoned them. Hence, those held the longest was supposed to be released first. As he expected, The North Vietnamese countered his response by tormenting him for days. They constrained him to sign a confession and make a recording that he had been an “air pirate” and got the medical treatment he did not deserve.

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