Case Interview Secrets Summary

Case Interview Secrets SummaryA Former McKinsey Interviewer Reveals How to Get Multiple Job Offers in Consulting

You always wanted to work as a consultant. And now you are invited for an interview. Or, you just went to an interview, and you failed badly.

Then, you are in the right place.

Our summary of “Case Interview Secrets” will give you the questions you can expect in job interviews at consultancies, and hence help you ace your interview, get the job.

So, scroll down and join us for the crash course on landing the job of your dreams.

Who Should Read “Case Interview Secrets”? and Why?

Once you have passed the seemingly hardest part of the job quest and have been asked to an interview at your preferred consultancy, it is time to consider how to become the candidate that they will employ.

Now, a job interview conducted at a consultancy most of the time is not just another job interview, where you will get a bunch of questions about your prior experiences.

Instead, you have to be prepared to answer both qualitative and quantitive questions.

In “Case Interview Secrets”, author Victor Cheng shows you how to ace the process by giving you an overview of the questions you might expect, and how to answer them.

We recommend this book to all readers who are preparing for a job interview and all of those who failed one and want to know what went wrong.

About Victor Cheng

Victor ChengVictor Cheng is a business book author, a public speaker, and a strategic planning consultant. He previously worked at the McKinsey & Company as a management consultant.

“Case Interview Secrets Summary”

Have you ever partook in a job interview at a major consulting firm?

If you have, you already know that it is not a mere conversation about your previous endeavors and qualifications. Instead, you will get a business case to solve.

The questions that you can expect in a case interview usually feature two types of quantitative questions.

First, you will get math questions that involve interpretation of data or arithmetic, percentage calculation.

Honestly, these questions can be daunting, but you need to try to answer them as quickly as possible. Do you know what you need to be able to do that?


Just like with everything else in life, practice is the key to mastery.

So, what can you do daily to improve your speed and confidence?

One thing you can do is practice using old interview questions. Of course, keep in mind that the questions are always changing, so practicing like this will only automate your reasoning and make you comfortable with such types of problems.

The second type of quantitative questions that you can expect to get is computational-level estimates.

What are these?

These questions present a problem in which you are given a few pieces of information, with which you will need to work to make estimates.

Answering these types of questions can be hard since you will have to work with large numbers in your head.

To make the task easier, either break up the numbers or round up the numbers.

In fact, in most cases, you will just need to come up with a rough estimate.

If you ever go to a case interview, you will probably be confused because of all the obscure estimations interviewers ask you to do.

However, you need to understand that the interviewer does what the clients will make you do if you become a consultant.

So, case interviews are simulations of your future job.

Key Lessons from “Case Interview Secrets”

1.      Determining a Product’s Market Size
2.      The Need for Interpersonal Skills
3.      General Business Questions

Determining a Product’s Market Size

First, you have to know that the purpose of such questions, if they ever come up, is to observe how you decide to approach them.

Knowing that you will know that coming up with the correct answer is not crucial.

So, the first thing you need to do is to find proxies or factors that can help you get to your answer.

But remember, once you have found proxies, identify and keep in mind their limits, because they are only a rough estimates to guide your predictions.

The Need for Interpersonal Skills

Interviewers do not ask for correct answers to their questions. Yes, they will appreciate your accurate predictions and developed analytical skills, but they will also look for excellent interpersonal skills.

If you become a consultant, you will continuously work with people, so you need to be calm and confident. So, if you are nervous and fidgety, you will most likely fail at getting the job, since the interviewer knows that a client will not trust recommendations that come from a nervous consultant.

General Business Questions

If you successfully answered the two types of quantitative questions, your interviewer might ask you some general business questions as well.

To handle such questions use frameworks.

  • The Profitability Framework will help you conduct a quantitative analysis, by breaking profit based on its components in revenue group and cost group.
  • The Business Situation Framework will help you analyze the client’s business, market, and industry, and determine such things as why the variable costs are so high. It does that by dissecting the business and revealing information of its subsegments: company, competition, customers, and products.

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“Case Interview Secrets” Quotes

If there isn’t any obvious segmentation pattern, avoid stating the segmentation pattern you want to see. Instead, phrase your question such that the interviewer tells you which segmentation pattern is the right one to use. Click To Tweet Just like a scientist devises an experiment to test a working theory about a disease, you need to determine how to test your client’s problem or challenge. Interviewers commonly call this step problem structuring. Click To Tweet A fixed cost doesn’t change as the number of units sold changes. Click To Tweet A variable cost changes, typically linearly, with the number of units sold. Click To Tweet When analyzing costs, it’s often useful to segment them into fixed versus variable costs. You can do this in two ways. One way is to disaggregate your cost per unit into fixed costs per unit and variable costs per unit. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

“Case Interview Secrets” is an excellent book for beginners that would like to avoid the hurdles. More knowledgeable readers and seasoned campaigners may find many of the content familiar. However, the puzzles and problems that Cheng inserts in the book will make it enjoyable and fun for readers.

Overall, expect to get a good lecture on how to become more confident when going for job interviews in consultancy firms.

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The Challenger Sale Summary

The Challenger Sale Summary

Taking Control of the Customer Conversation

If you’re in the business world long enough, you’re probably aware that the fundamental rule of sales success is simple: the customer is always right. Consequently, the job of a salesperson is fairly simple as well: he or she needs to build a good relationship with the client.

But, what if this is only partially true?

Or even wrong?

What if there’s a new law in town, and what if that law is something you would not intuitively abide by?

This is exactly what Matthew Dixon and Brent Adamson claim in “The Challenger Sale.” And our job is, you know it – to summarize their main ideas in about 1,000 words.

So, let’s go.

Who Should Read “The Challenger Sale”? And Why?

The Challenger Sale” is something quite unique. Namely, it’s a well-researched book which claims to have uncovered a better and more feasible way to sell your products.

Now, don’t forget that people have been buying and selling things since the dawn of times. Not only that, but successful businesses have followed the relationship builder model for long enough. And it works.

So, what new could be there to learn?

Read “The Challenger Sale” if you want an answer to this question. You’ll certainly get it. And if you are serious about a career in selling, as an Amazon review rightly states, don’t just read it. Reread it. It’s just too original and fact-based to ignore it.

About Matthew Dixon and Brent Adamson

Matthew DixonMatthew Dixon is an American author and in-demand speaker, one of the world’s foremost experts on sales. He has obtained his Ph.D. from the Graduate School of Public and International Affairs and has worked as a Group Leader in CEB’s research and advisory division.

In addition to “The Challenger Sale,” he has co-written two more books, “The Challenger Customer,” and “The Effortless Experience.”

Brent AdamsonBrent Adamson is an American author and sales researcher. He has obtained an MBA from the University of Michigan’s Ross School of Business, and a Ph.D. in applied linguistics from the University of Texas. He has worked as the managing director of the Sales Executive Council of the CEB.

With Dixon, Adamson has co-authored both “The Challenger Sale,” and “The Challenger Customer.”

“The Challenger Sale Summary”

If you’re a sales professional, you probably know a thing or two about selling strategies. But, here’s one thing you don’t know!

No matter what you’re doing to sell your product, you are one of five different types of salespeople!

How do we know that?

Well, because in 2009, the Sales Executive Council (SEC) researched how the economic crisis affected the business-to-business (B2B) sales world and found out that all sales reps fit neatly into five different categories.

The first group are the hard workers. Their name says it all: they work more than the others. They call more people, they actively engage in long conversations, they give out more proposals than anyone else in the company.

The second group are the relationship builders. They simply don’t need to call that many people. They are aware of the 80/20 rule, and they know who are their most important customers. And the relationship to these customers mean everything to these salespeople.

The lone wolves constitute the third group of sales reps. They are self-confident and they have their own way to do business. There’s no easy way to manage a lone wolf. The reason why he or she still works for you is simple: in even though in an unconventional manner, they bring the money.

The fourth group are the reactive problem solvers. These are pretty similar to customer service reps. To them, the customer is not only always right, but the customer must always be content and happy.

Finally, we have the challengers of the book’s title. They are both respected researchers and outstanding orators. In other words, they learn everything they can about their customers and they use the insight to help… well, everybody.

Because they are sweet talkers they can influence their customers to buy whatever they’re selling. But, they don’t just wish to sell something; they also want to inspire their customers to maximize the benefit of whatever they’re selling.

And you know what?

The SEC research found out that these challengers are doing quite a good job. They were consistently ranked as the best salespeople, contributing with more sales than any other category of sales reps.

The business world so far was the world of relationship builders. Dixon and Adamson suggest a paradigm shift.

So, what are you waiting for?

You need to identify the challengers among your employees, train the others to become like them, and – why not? – hire few new challengers.

You won’t regret it.

Key Lessons from “The Challenger Sale”

1.      If You’re a Sales Rep, You’re One of Five Types
2.      Relationship Builders Are a Thing of the Past: Challengers, Welcome
3.      Build an Effective Challenger Sales Model

If You’re a Sales Rep, You’re One of These Five Types

There are only five types of salespeople: hard workers, relationship builders, lone wolves, reactive problem solvers, and challengers.

The hard workers make more calls and send out more proposals than any other category. The relationship builders are all about strong customer relationship. The lone wolves follow their own set of rules and are unmanageable. The reactive problem solvers keep the customers happy at all times.

The challengers – well, let’s just say, that they work both for their company and for their customers.

Relationship Builders Are a Thing of the Past: Challengers, Welcome

Relationship builders are the center of the traditional sales model. After all, it’s only logical and intuitive that they are. After all, relationships are what businesses are built upon.

However, a wide-ranging 2009 study and over 6,000 analyzed salespeople have confirmed that the business world has changed. Challengers are consistently ranked as the sales reps who sell the most.

The cause of this, it seems, is the change in customers’ behavior. The world is too dynamic nowadays for lasting relationships. What customers need more than this are proactive sales professionals who are not merely into selling, but who want to challenge their way of thinking.

In short, people who’ll help them make the best decision.

Build an Effective Challenger Sales Model

There are three ways to start building an effective challenger sales model. First and foremost, you can identify the challengers in your company and build your business around them. Secondly, you can train the rest of your employees to be a bit more proactive. And, finally, you can scout around and hire new challengers.

Either way, look for the strategic storytellers who are interested in researching their customers’ habits and do not really conform to the usual call/send out habits.

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“The Challenger Sale” Quotes

You can’t be an effective Challenger if you’re not going to push your customers. Click To Tweet Customers want to talk about their business, not your solution. Click To Tweet Over half of customer loyalty is a result not of what you sell, but how you sell. Click To Tweet In a world where findable business has all but vanished, Relationship Builders are doomed to fail. Click To Tweet Challenger reps aren’t focused on what they are selling, but on what the person they’re speaking to is trying to accomplish. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

As we already mentioned, “The Challenger Sale” is an exceptional book. It’s not exactly an easy read. In fact, it’s written in a technical style which may deter general readers from finishing it. But, ultimately, it’s too original to expect it to be laidback and simple.

What’s the most interesting part about it is that it’s a nice amalgam of theory and practical advice, of research and applicability. And this makes for an exciting read, both for scholars and sales professionals. We are neither – and yet we had more than stimulating time reading “The Challenger Sale.”

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Singletasking Summary

Singletasking Summary

Get More Done One Thing at a Time

You can fool yourself, but you can’t really fool us: you are not exactly reading this! Because, reading requires both focused effort and analytical state of mind – and you’re not giving a fair chance at either at this moment.

Why would we say that?

Well, because you’re probably reading this while browsing Facebook or with headphones over your ears. And, that’s basically the same as not reading it.

Still convinced that you’re good at multitasking?

Let Devora Zack teach you a thing or two.

Who Should Read “Singletasking”? And Why?

The message of this book is quite simple: multitasking doesn’t work. The fact that you’re doing it and you’re still successful doesn’t mean the opposite. It probably means that you don’t have enough time to do anything else. And that you’ll finish twice as more if you start to singletask.

So, if you’re tired of multitasking, this book should come in handy to you. Read it, however, even in the opposite case. If we are to believe Zack, multitasking is biologically impossible.

So, either you are wasting yourself, or you are a freak of nature.

About Devora Zack

Devora ZackDevora Zack is an American leadership and networking expert. A magna cum laude Penn University graduate, Zack holds an MBA from Cornell and is a certified neuro-linguistic programming trainer.

She is the CEO of Only Connect Consulting, Inc., a company with a more than attractive portfolio, featuring 100+ clients in almost all major business sectors.

Singletasking” is her most recent book. Both of her previous works, “Networking for People Who Hate Networking,” and “Managing for People Who Hate Managing” have been lauded and awarded by numerous publications.

“Singletasking Summary”

Let’s get straight to the point:

Multitasking doesn’t exist. We’re not saying that, and, for that matter, Zack isn’t saying it either. It’s once again, time-proof good-old science spreading the news.

Namely, what you’re referring to as multitasking is, actually, “task-switching.” In other words, instead of doing many things at the same time, you’re still doing them one at a time, though switching quickly from one task to another.

How quickly?

Scientists have done the research and they have concluded that it’s probably no more than a tenth of a second.

To put that into laymen’s terms: it’s a rollercoaster ride what’s happening in your brain, it is. And it is not doing you any favors in terms of your health either.

Namely, multitasking – or, let’s call it by its real name, task-switching – shrinks your brain. No, we’re not joking: your prefrontal cortex actually reduces in size when you’re doing many things at the same time. It’s his way to say:

“I’ve had just about enough with this overload. I’m going back into my room and I’m locking the door. And no one is allowed until I get a list of priorities!”

Now, why would you do this to your brain? Are you a tyrant or something?

Of course, you’re not!

And that’s why it’s time to lend us an ear!

We have one word for you: singletask.

It is still underlined in red by your Microsoft Word dictionary. So, it is your job to make it trendy enough so that it deserves a place in non-custom vocabularies.


Just follow these few simple steps.

First of all, reduce the time you spend on time-consuming apps such as Facebook. Start by shutting off all social media notifications immediately.

Secondly, learn to take short breaks: singletasking requires focus, and focus requires energy.

Speaking of which, your mind will be wandering from time to time; put down in writing everything that can wait. You’ll come back to it later.

Don’t forget that it’s a jungle out there, so no matter how hard you try, the other people will not let you focus. Teach them: make yourself unavailable, either by muting your phone or locking your door.

Also, clustertask! Group similar task together and complete them in a single go.

Finally, be a good listener. Whether you’re in a meeting or taking a walk with a friend – practice singletasking by not even taking your phone with you.

In time – you’ll see – you’re not going to need it.

Except when you actually need it.

Key Lessons from “Singletasking”

1.      Multitasking Is Actually Task-Switching
2.      Multitasking Shrinks Your Brain
3.      Singletask Yourself Back in the World of Human Relations

Multitasking Is Actually Task-Switching

The next time you hear somebody using the word “multitasking,” just stop him and throw at him few science-based pieces of information right out of Zack’s book.

First and foremost, say to him, multitasking doesn’t exist. Your brain is not capable of doing few things at the same time, so stop living in the illusion that it is. It’s like you’re telling me that you can watch five TV channels at the same time, even though your TV doesn’t have a PiP function!

What’s really happening is that you’re just switching fast and easy between tasks. It doesn’t help you with your assignments, though. You’re neither more productive nor more precise.

So, let’s get one thing straight: multitasking is task-switching. And…

Task-Switching Shrinks Your Brain

It does! It really does. Scientists have noticed that the prefrontal cortex of people who multitask is, on average, smaller than the prefrontal cortex of those who don’t.

Because, all challenging tasks happen in your prefrontal cortex. It’s not like you’re washing the dishes and listening to music! It’s like you’re counting money and talking to somebody about the results of last night’s football matches.

Can’t do it, can you?

Well, your brain says that he, for one thing, won’t anymore.

Singletask Yourself Back in the World of Human Relations

Multitasking isn’t only bad for your health. It’s also bad about your relationships. It’s because of it you’re unable to focus on the person standing next to you.

When you start singletasking, you’ll see how this will change your social life for the better as well. No more urges to accept a phone call in the middle of a conversation, no more glances at your mobile phone every ten minutes or so.

Just the miracle of the oh so simple and tender, so profoundly beautiful interhuman communication.

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“Singletasking” Quotes

By immersing yourself in one task at a time, one moment at a time, you’ll accomplish more while enjoying deeper, stronger relationships. Click To Tweet Multitasking is misleading. Rather than mitigating demands, it magnifies our problems. Our brains are incapable of honing in on more than one item at a time. Click To Tweet Multitasking weakens our ability to concentrate. We are collectively losing the ability to sustain prolonged attention. Click To Tweet It is all too easy to replace inward examination with external distractions. Click To Tweet Dedicating a mere three to five minutes at the start of each workday to organizing your to-do list can transform your entire day into one that is proactive rather than reactive. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

“Singletasking” is as straightforward as a book can get. It has only one message and it spends half of its pages to set the grounds for a theory defending it, with the other half spent on practical ways to implement it.

One could say that the book isn’t as innovative as Zack would have you believe. Moreover, it isn’t actually a book, but somewhat drawn-out magazine article.

Even so, the power and the importance of its message makes it an almost indispensable read for any millennial. Because, otherwise, the future of our minds may be a bit bleak.

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Rookie Smarts Summary

Rookie Smarts Summary

Why Learning Beats Knowing in the New Game of Work

Remember your first day at work? The trembling, the fear of making a mistake, the attentiveness. Remember how many days you stayed up afterhours to perfect some skill?

Now, where did it all disappear?

Liz Wiseman is – sorry for the pun! – a very wise woman. And she might just have the answer to that question. And few more you haven’t even asked yourself.

Join us in reading her influential “Rookie Smarts”.

We have the best bits.

Who Should Read “Rookie Smarts”? And Why?

Liz Wiseman knows about leadership quite as much as anyone on this planet. After all, you don’t get into the Thinkers50 ranking list for nothing three times in a row! With this in mind, the very title of this book begs the question: why would Wiseman show any interest in rookie smarts then? Is she conspiring some paradigm shift?

The short answer is: she is. And whether you are a manager or a leadership trainer, you’ll want to find out what it is. But, unlike “Multipliers,” this book is also about beginners. And how they can use their enthusiasm to become leaders.

About Liz Wiseman

Liz WisemanLiz Wiseman is an American researcher and executive advisor, and the president of the world-famous Wiseman Group.

In addition to “Rookie Smarts,” she has authored two more well-received books, “The Multiplier Effect,” and the New York Times bestseller “Multipliers.”

“Rookie Smarts Summary”

Even by glancing in its content, you can tell what “Rookie Smarts” is about. That’s because it is a book neatly divided in two parts.

The more interesting, five-chaptered first one, titled “Rookie Smarts: Living on the Learning Curve” describes the benefits of the oft-dismissed rookie smarts and classifies them into four categories.

The second part, titled “Cultivating Rookie Smarts”, consists of three chapters which call for rookie revival and lay out the ways to do it.

Right away, Wiseman points to few studies which suggest that the rookie-expert (or in her word: veteran) dichotomy is obsolete and should be cast aside. Because both rookies and veterans have their good and their bad sides. And because the best companies are those which have learned to use them all.

Needless to say, veterans are able to find simpler solutions in a much shorter period of time. Their experience has given them this prerogative. However, they are neither as innovative, nor as open to new ideas as rookies. They are simply profoundly sure they’ve seen it all.

But, they haven’t!

And just as rookies have so much to learn from them, they can learn from rookies too.

Wiseman speaks of four different rookie-smart modes, describing each of them and contrasting them to the analogous veteran states. We’ll do the same. Though, in not so many words.

1, Backpackers vs. Caretakers

Backpackers have “unencumbered minds.” They are those familiar “rookies times two”: they know practically nothing. They enter a field without preconceived notions and expectations. As a consequence, they know boundaries and are unconsciously ready to break them. They are mentally prepared for changes.

Caretaker veterans, on the other hand, don’t believe them and won’t try anything new. They are gatekeepers: they know the tradition and follow it blindly. They are not open to new opportunities. And they are flabbergasted when they are left behind.

This happened when a backpacker, a newcomer and junior doctor Roger Bannister became the first 4-minute miler in 1954. The caretakers of his time didn’t believe that running a mile under 4 minutes was possible. So, they never even tried.

Your way out, veteran reader?

Ask naïve questions. Get a fresh start. Release your resources.

2. Hunter-Gatherers vs. Local Guides

When rookies enter a new terrain, they have to learn how to survive there. Just like our ancient ancestors. So, they are prone to acquire new knowledge from everything and everywhere. They filter nothing – they soak up the new information.

Their veteran counterparts?

Local guides suffer from “geo-blivion.” They’ve done these things thousands of times before, and they know the area like the back of their palms.

So, veterans simply stop being aware of their surroundings and environment. Once again, they do things blindly and correctly, because they know seven or eight habits which can guarantee them success.

But, environments change. Their habits don’t.

What should they do differently?

Swap a job with a rookie. Or ask junior colleagues to mentor them. Start remapping their terrains.

3. Firewalkers vs. Marathoners

Firewalkers move cautiously, but quickly. They try to master what they’ve just started doing and, consequently, they ask for continual feedback. They want to close the gap with the experts as soon as possible. So, they split their running course into many checkpoints.

Marathoners know that it’s about the long run. But, they rely so much on their record of accomplishments that they forget to readapt. They don’t calibrate their performance anymore. Keeping the steady pace is usually good. But, be prepared to be surprised by the newcomer.

Unless –

Unless you get your hands dirty. Risk as you’ve risked in the beginning. It’s time to move from that comfortable chair of yours and get into some action!

4. Pioneers vs. Settlers

Rookies are pioneers. They’ve just entered a new territory and they are forging ahead. They may encounter something scary, but the wilderness may hide something much more beautiful as well. It’s the second thing that leads them.

Veterans are settlers. They know the place, and they are satisfied with what they have. They won’t leave the comfort zone unless they know there’s something better out there.

The thing is: they should!

Don’t fall behind! Take up a new discipline and feel as a rookie once again. Become a half-expert in some other field.

After all, you know full well what Einstein says:

“Once you stop learning, you start dying.”

Key Lessons from “Rookie Smarts”

1.      Veteran Mode Off: Caretakers, Local Guides, Marathoners, Settlers
2.      Rookie Smarts Mode On: Backpacker, Hunter-Gatherers, Firewalkers, Pioneers
3.      The Rookie-Smarts Organization

Veteran Mode Off: Caretakers, Local Guides, Marathoners, Settlers

If you’ve worked in an organization for some time, you’re probably a veteran. And your mind is usually in one of these four modes.

You’re either a caretaker, because you know the boundaries, or a local guide, because you know the environment perfectly; you’re either a marathoner, because you’re inert and know that small steps will get you to the end, or settler, because you’ve had enough with exploring.

It’s time this stopped!

You’ve climbed your career ladder.

But, keep doing this and you’ll fall of the learning curve.

Rookie Smarts Mode On: Backpacker, Hunter-Gatherers, Firewalkers, Pioneers

If you’re just starting to work somewhere, you might be afraid of being a beginner. Don’t worry: Wiseman says that there’s plenty veterans can learn from you.

You may be a backpacker, but that means you’re more adventurous than them. You may be a hunter-gatherer, but you are also hyperaware and soaking up knowledge. Veterans are long past it – to their detriment.

What if you’re a firewalker? Don’t worry: asking continual feedback is good for everybody. And pioneer? Improvisation always makes up for lack of knowledge.

The Rookie-Smarts Organization

To all the veterans out there: rookie-smart modes are what got you to where you are. It’s also what will get the next expert to your positions.

You want to stop that?

Well, make a trick or two. Pair rookies and veterans. Swap jobs with newcomers. Ask for feedbacks from those below you. Become half-expert in something you know nothing about.

Trade boredom with newfound joy.

Don’t be conventional. It’s the non-conformists who move the world.

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“Rookie Smarts” Quotes

This book is about living and working perpetually on a learning curve. Click To Tweet Wise leaders leverage the rookie smarts on their team… because of the value rookies bring to the table: new practices, expert networks, agility, tireless improvisation, and a greater sense of ownership. Click To Tweet As companies mature and grow, many become caught in the trappings of success and lose their rookie smarts—the twin powers of naïveté and chutzpah that germinated their initial success. Click To Tweet Rookie smarts is not the exclusive domain of the young, the inexperienced, or the naïve. Even the most experienced and successful professionals can renew themselves and find their rookie groove again. Click To Tweet Every revival begins with an awakening, an increased level of focus and awareness Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

“Rookie Smarts” attempts to do two things: to inspire leaders regain back their creativity and curiosity from when they had been rookies, and help rookies find the category they currently belong in and the class they would like to fit in the future.

As expected when written by someone with her background, the book does well on both accounts. Sometimes it’s repetitive, and sometimes the writing appears a bit shoddy, but the overall impression is that “Rookie Smarts” can change the way you think about yourself and your position in your company.

And it’s not like you can ask for more from a book.

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Pre-Suasion Summary

Pre-Suasion Summary

A Revolutionary Way to Influence and Persuade

Just think of this scenario.

A salesman comes to your house, selling encyclopedias. It’s the age of Wikipedia, so you don’t really need one. But, after half an hour, for some reason, you buy an expensive, lavishly illustrated Britannica published in the 1980s.

Now, how did that happen, you ask yourself!

Robert Cialdini may have an answer to your question.

And we have it summarized for you.

Who Should Read “Pre-Suasion”? And Why?

Robert Beno Cialdini is certainly not a name you would like to overlook if you’re interested in marketing or psychology. He has written many books about the art of influence and persuasion, and he has been lauded for his ideas and writing over and over again.

Perhaps the best way to illustrate how essential is Cialdini for your business is a quote by Guy Kawasaki. He’s a heavyweight in the world of marketing as well. And, regarding Cialdini’s first book, “Influence,” of which “Pre-Suasion” is the sequel, he was fairly straightforward:

“This book is the de facto standard to learn the psychology of persuasion. If you don’t read it, I hope you enjoy pounding your head against the wall and throwing away marketing dollars.”

Do you want to do that?

About Robert Cialdini

Robert CialdiniRobert Cialdini is Regents’ Professor Emeritus of Marketing and Psychology at Arizona State University. A University of Wisconsin BSc, he earned a Ph.D. in Social Psychology at Columbia University in 1970.

A life-long researcher in the field of influence and persuasion, he is one of the canonical authors in the world of marketing studies. His books have sold millions of copies. He has won numerous praises as a great motivational speaker too.

Cialdini’s “The Small BIG” was recognized as book of the year by “The Times” in 2008, and “Yes! 50 Scientifically Proven Ways to Be Persuasive,” was a “New York Times” bestseller.

“Pre-Suasion Summary”

You want to get what you want, instead of moaning about not getting it?

Well, this book is a good place to start.

And its overarching principle: that the beginning is the second step of a pitch. The pitch, in other words, starts some time before itself.

No wonder Cialdini opens his book by quoting Sun Tzu’s “The Art of War”: “Every battle is won before it is fought.” Pre-Suasion is exactly this: making your customer receptive to your pitch even before you make it.

Two basic ways to do this are overselling and familiarity.

For example, when a consultant says to his clients, “As you can tell, I’m not going to be able to charge you a million dollars for this,” he’s already prepared them for a really high price. They will accept the one he offers them next – with no questions asked.

Familiarity is self-explanatory. A fire-alarm salesman Cialdini knows, only makes the pitch when invited by his customers to their home. That way, he knows they trust him.

And then he moves to few nifty 1-minute tips to produce the reaction he wants in his clients.

You want your customer to try something new? Ask him if he is “adventurous”.

You want someone else to ponder his options carefully and mindfully? Just slip a photograph of Auguste Rodin’s “The Thinker” in the conversation.

You want someone to help you or to inspire someone else? Don’t hesitate to keep in your pocket a picture of people standing near each other, or a runner winning a race.

Your clients will not know what hit them!

And you can go one step further if you like, by messing around with their unconscious some more.

For example, did you know that sharing a warm coffee with someone makes you suddenly closer to that person? The very presence of a warm coffee in a client’s hand makes him or her more cooperative and more giving.

Also, did you know that presenting your pitch or portfolio on a heavy clipboard makes you instantly more professional and serious? eBooks are great and all, but what would you think about “Pre-Suasion” if you could read the book only in an eBook format?

Not as authoritative as a hardcopy, is it?

Key Lessons from “Pre-Suasion”

1.      Win the War Before the First Battle
2.      Oversell Your Product and Familiarize with Your Clients
3.      A Warm Coffee and a Heavy Clipboard Go a Long Way

Win the War Before the First Battle

Pre-suasion is the technique of persuading your client into a state of compliance before you even start making your pitch. It’s a strategy to create the right kind of environment for your pitch to work. It’s, above all, a way to use your clients’ inherent weakness in your favor.

Because, people are products of evolution and habits, and they can be easily manipulated because of the internal mechanisms which regulate their responses.

Even when they don’t know they are.

Oversell Your Product and Familiarize with Your Clients

Overselling is an interesting tactic. If someone tells you that, obviously, he can’t ask from you ten thousand dollars, you’ll probably agree to the offered price of $1,000, even though the real worth may be merely $100.

The seller will manage to talk you into buying his product with even less effort, if he hasn’t made the pitch during the first two or three discussions you’ve had with him. You’ll think him a friend and believe him more. And he’ll use that belief against you.

A Warm Coffee and a Heavy Clipboard Go a Long Way

They really do!

Just think of Christmas and you, cuddled in your pajamas, with a warm coffee in your hand! Doesn’t it feel nice? And isn’t the world a much nicer place now?

It’s because warm drinks make us feel closer to other people. Just as heavy things trick us into believing that they’re more important.

But when a customer doesn’t know these things…

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“Pre-Suasion” Quotes

Channeled attention leads to pre-suasion: the human tendency to assign undue levels of importance to an idea as soon as one’s attention is turned to it. Click To Tweet Both language and imagery can be used to produce desirable outcomes such as greater job performance… and more positive personnel evaluations. Click To Tweet A communicator pre-suades by focusing recipients initially on concepts that are aligned, associatively, with the information yet to be delivered. Click To Tweet It is possible to send ourselves in desired directions by locating to physical and psychological environments prefit with cues associated with our relevant goals. Click To Tweet Pre-suaders want to do more than create temporary changes via momentary shifts in attention; they want to make those changes durable. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

Back in 2005, “Fortune” chose the 75 smartest business books ever written. Unsurprisingly, Cialdini’s “Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion” was listed as one of the five essential books about power.

“Pre-Suasion” doesn’t start where “Influence” ends, but rather it ends where “Influence” starts. In other words, a modern reader may get a better understanding of Cialdini’s classic, if he or she reads “Pre-Suasion” first. And, boy, the thrill ride that reader will enjoy!

“Pre-Suasion” is a 400-page mammoth with a gigantic list of references and notes, amounting to about half of the book. The title is not the only thing “jargony” about it: you’ll have to prepare yourself for some analytical reading if you want to get to the end.

But if you do, you’ll get much more than the pleasure of accomplishment.

You’ll get what you want.

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So Good They Can’t Ignore You Summary

So Good They Can’t Ignore You SummaryWhy Skills Trump Passion in the Quest for Work You Love

People will not stop telling you to follow your passion.

It is a romantic notion, really, but it is always smart?

In our summary of “So Good, They Can’t Ignore You” we tell you why following your passion is not always a good idea, and how you can find work you love without making rash moves.

Who Should Read “So Good They Can’t Ignore You”? and, Why?

In “So Good They Can’t Ignore You” Cal Newport discredits the contemporary myth that following your passion always leads to happiness and success.

In his theory, he takes the “road less traveled by” and argues that pursuing your passions most of the time will lead to disappointment and an undeveloped skillset. Instead, he suggests that you will be much happier if you develop your skill set and career capital in the job you have. By doing that, you will become better at what you do and start loving it as a result.

Using case studies and stories of successful people to illustrate that success can only come with hard work and refining of the craft.

We recommend this book to all readers who are willing to work hard and find the more realistic way toward career advancement.

About Cal Newport

Cal NewportCal Newport is a writer and a professor in Georgetown University’s computer science department.

“So Good They Can’t Ignore You Summary”

There comes a time in life when most people think about quitting their current job position and start pursuing their passions.

Many writers and contemporary speakers have influenced people to follow their passions, promising them that if they do so, success is an inevitable outcome.

However, such a notion is an illusion. It does not take into consideration hard work and ignores the importance of developing valuable and hardly replaceable skills.

In fact, happiness is not related to passion, but to workplace longevity.

What do we mean by that?

Well, the longer you do a job, the better you become at it. Some theorists argue that to become great at what you do, you need to practice the craft for at least a decade. Hence, you cannot develop skills if can’t hold a job for some period. Moreover, when you become good at something, you start to enjoy doing it.

Furthermore, the longer you work at a particular company, the higher the possibility to develop relationships with your colleagues which will also lead to work-centered satisfaction.

We currently live in a “passion-centric” era where people are blindly following their passions, without understanding precisely what they need to turn their dreams into reality. However, the statements above discredit the theories that to be happy – you have to follow a pre-existing passion.

Instead, you can become passionate about what you currently do, by developing your skill set and creating bonds with the people you work with.

The truth is the reality that you face when you follow your dreams rarely matches the fantasy. Of course, there are exceptions.

But, let’s be honest – not everyone can be an exception.

Key Lessons from “So Good They Can’t Ignore You”

1.      Be So Good They Can’t Ignore You
2.      Turn Down a Promotion
3.      Think Small, Act Big

Be So Good They Can’t Ignore You

People who feel the need to follow their dreams often wish for independence and seek creativity. However, nothing comes at no cost. Thus that level of autonomy requires hard work and many sacrifices.

Job freedom comes at the highest levels and only to those who have shown that they possess crucial skills and an ability to lead.

To achieve such freedom, you have to become so good that those who promote employees cannot ignore you.

You have to be ready, however. Acquiring career capital is not as glamorous as you may think. You will most probably need to make numerous sacrifices.

So, before starting out, recognize that hard work is a fundamental ingredient to success.

Turn Down a Promotion

Sometimes, when you make nontraditional professional decisions, you will face skepticism and advice from people all around you.

Take for example turning down a promotion to go back to classes, or turning down a high-salary position for an internship that gives you valuable skills. People will surely protest!

Be ready to encounter resistance each time you use unorthodox methods.

However, even though people around you will think that you are moving a step back, stay true to yourself and your knowledge that acquiring career capital will lead to success in the long haul.

Think Small, Act Big

Whenever you decide to pursue a career, know the value of your mission. When we said that you should not follow your passion, what we meant was that you should not follow it blindly.

You should always go for the things you love, but not before you ensure that you have the right career capital and possess the right skills. Only then you will be able to thrive.

Beginning with a big picture is a mistake people commonly make. Do not start from scratch. Instead, work on smaller ideas and move step by step towards the big picture.

By doing that you will feel less pressure and let your big idea take shape by itself.

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“So Good They Can’t Ignore You” Quotes

Most jobs don’t offer their employees great creativity, impact or control over what they do and how they do it. Click To Tweet Working right trumps finding the right work. Click To Tweet How can we follow our passions if we don’t have any relevant passions to follow? Click To Tweet Become good at something rare and valuable, and then invest the career capital this generates into the type of traits that make a job great. Click To Tweet When deciding whether to follow an appealing pursuit that will introduce more control into your work life, seek evidence of whether people are willing to pay for it. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

Cal Newport gives a different point of view on what are the valuable things when developing a career for yourself. He does a great job at getting his points across, gives recaps of his main ideas for the reader to remember them, and teaches valuable and practical lessons.

Overall, “So Good They Can’t Ignore You” is a book with a captivating premise and excellent execution.

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Remote Summary

Remote SummaryOffice Not Required

Many companies have already adopted the notion of remote work. Why is remote work the future of the business world? If you decide to embrace it, what steps can you take to maintain a productive distributed staff? Lastly, if you are a remote worker yourself, what can you do to avoid the most common traps, and thrive in your career?

Read our summary of “Remote” and find the answers to all of these questions.

Who Should Read “Remote”? and Why?

Authors Jason Fried and David H. Hansson believe that to get the most out of your staff, you should avoid making them work in offices.

In “Remote” they argue that “remote work” is the future, and that the world will start adopting the notion of home-based employees.

They spell out many advantages of remote work but also present the challenges that remote workers will most probably face when they interrupt their usual “9-to-5” work routine.

We recommend this manual to entrepreneurs, managers, and startups who are curious about the perks of remote work, and to all readers who would like to take on a home-based job.

About Jason Fried and David Heinemeier Hansson

Jason Fried and David Heinemeier HanssonJason Fried and David Heinemeier Hansson are the founders of the software company 37Signals and are co-authors of The New York Times bestseller “Rework.”

“Remote Summary”

The future of work is here, and it is called “remote work.”

Many companies started adopting this way of work, because of its many advantages.

Remote work appeared mostly as a reaction to the drawbacks people face when working in offices. The contemporary office is the biggest enemy to productivity.

How come?

Well, just think about it. When you work in an office, your workday is fragmented and interrupted by calls, meetings, and questions that you need to answer to your coworkers.

In fact, the uninterrupted time you have for getting into your “productivity zone” is almost nonexistent.

As a remote worker, on the other hand, you can give yourself all the uninterrupted time you need. Also, you can work whenever you think that suits your rhythm. You can choose the environment you feel the most comfortable in as well – be it your home, a coffee shop or a library.

You always wanted to move somewhere, but maintain a job?

No problem.

Are you a night owl and function better at night?

That is fine!

Remote work can help you improve the quality of your life. Just think of all the time you will be able to save when you stop making the daily commute, which you will then be able to spend with your loved ones.

Better yet, workers are not the only ones who benefit.

When you employ remote workers, you save on facilities and rent. You also can tap the global pool of talent, and hence have a wider choice of extraordinarily skilled people. Fewer people will quit because of reasons unrelated to their actual job.

Looking at it from each side, remote work sure seems like a win-win.

Not convinced yet?

Read on!

Key Lessons from “Remote”

1.      Conventional Objections
2.      Hiring Remote Workers
3.      Living as a Remote Worker

Conventional Objections

You may be surprised why, if there are so many advantages to remote work, the practice has not spread globally.

The response lies in the resistance that managers show, which they base on the conventional notions about work. However, these concepts no longer apply.

Below we list some of the most common myths linked with work.

  • Stimulating creativity demands face-to-face
  • Being together enhances
  • People will slack off if managers are not watching them
  • It is not fair to let only some employees work remotely
  • It will be less secure

Hiring Remote Workers

When you decide to hire remote workers, there are no limits to the amount of talent you can access. The world is yours.

Another advantage is that you can gain insight into foreign markets, since foreign workers may give you information about their local environments, which you might not have another way of accessing.

You can even use your international staff as a selling point.

Next, we give you a simple set of guidelines that you should follow to make sure that you choose the best remote workers for your business:

  • Don’t ignore “personality.”

The fact that your staff will not be working in the same physical space does not mean that the human element is no longer relevant.

So, create a team of upbeat and motivated people.

  • Avoid gimmicks

Instead of making your candidates solve logic problems or puzzles to evaluate their skills, look at examples of their past work.

  • Find good writers

When you work remotely, most communication takes place via chat, email and other forms of writing. So, make sure that the people you hire possess excellent writing skills.

  • Meet candidates face-to-face

You can best assess your candidates if you meet them in person. Seeing your future worker in person will allow you to evaluate his or her character better and understand how they feet in your corporate culture.

Living as a Remote Worker

Not following the standard, traditional 9-to-5 work routine can undermine your both your work habits and your life.

Make sure you create a proper structure, to avoid mixing your personal and professional life. The dividing line between the two is very thin, and it can be easily blurred if you do not find a way to keep it there.

Sometimes, you will have a project that is going well or ideas that will pop into your head in the wee hours. You will feel tempted. If you are working with people who live in different time zones, the temptation will be even bigger.

Avoid giving in such temptations, since you may find bur soon out.

Many remote workers not only face burning out but also suffer from a feeling of isolation.

If you feel isolated, go among people – find a coffee shop or a public library. The sense of isolation is psychological, so just adding some human noise in your daily routine will help immensely.

Apart from that, use the following recommendations to create a structured workday:

  • Have special work clothes
  • Have an office
  • Divide your workday into sections
  • Use two computers
  • Assess your progress each day

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“Remote” Quotes

In 30 years’ time, as technology moves forward even further, people are going to look back and wonder why offices ever existed. Click To Tweet Millions of workers and thousands of companies have already discovered the joys and benefits of working remotely. Click To Tweet If people want to play video games or surf the web they’re perfectly capable of doing so from their desks at the office. Click To Tweet Meetings and managers are actually the greatest causes of work not getting done at the office. Click To Tweet The office during the day has become the last place people want to be when they want to get work done. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

“Remote” is an amusing, quick read filled with fun cartoon illustrations and breezy sentences. You will also find entertaining and most importantly – practical advice that you can use to maintain a distributed workforce.

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Unlimited Memory Summary

Unlimited Memory Summary

How to Use Advanced Learning Strategies to Learn Faster, Remember More and Be More Productive

Remember that time we talked about the differences between short-term and long-term memory? Sure, you don’t. We had to check too! And we wrote that article!

Unlimited Memory” is written by someone who remembers not only last month’s summary, but also about 10,000 digits of π!

Here are his ways to achieve this.

Who Should Read “Unlimited Memory”? And Why?

Whether it’s because of tomorrow’s exam or because of your wife’s anniversary, memory is a tool you must sharpen at least once in a while. “Unlimited Memory” may be one of the best tools out there to do this.

Read it especially if you have problems remembering other people’s names or if you are constantly forgetting one or two items on your spouse’s shopping list.

About Kevin Horsley

Kevin HorsleyKevin Horsley is an International Grandmaster of Memory, and a two-time Memory World Record holder. He is also a professional speaker and learning assistant.

Horsley has authored four bestselling titles. You can find out more about him at:

“Unlimited Memory Summary”

Your memory’s been failing you lately? Or – worse – ever since you can remember?

In “Unlimited Memory,” Kevin Horsley says that it’s basically your fault. For now, see it this way!

If, say, you want to become a great athlete, you start training daily. If you want to become a rich person, you start finding ways to become richer. And even if you want to find yourself a nice home, you spent years searching it or, better yet, learning to love it.

Then how is it that you expect to have a great memory – just like that?

It’s not God-given. You need to obtain it.

Start by learning how to concentrate. Yes, that means stop checking your mail on your phone while reading this summary!

How did we know you’re doing that?

Because everybody does it! Whether it’s Facebook or Twitter – distraction is a serious, serious problem of the 21st century.

Horsley’s way to tackle it?

The PIC method.

It stands for purpose, interest and curiosity. And it means that you can’t concentrate on anything unless you have given yourself a purpose to be interested and curious about it.

Whether it’s because of your grit, your brand, or your winning strategy – purpose-driven activities are the only ones which make sense. So, don’t start learning French just for the sake of it! Start learning it because you want to read Victor Hugo as he was originally written!

That’s the only way to stop defocusing and find your element.

But, there’s still some way to go from being focused to actually remembering stuff. As always – a little creativity helps. It’s time for our next method.

The SEE method.

The SEE method makes you remember better, by actively engaging the full potential of your brain. The three letters stand for senses, exaggeration, and energize. And it’s the process by which you’ll be remembering things from now on.

Firstly, include as many of your senses as you can. Smell, sight, sound, taste – anything will do. Secondly, exaggerate in the face of logic! After all, you’re more likely to remember a giant rainbow-colored rabbit with earrings than an ordinary bunny. Finally, energize: instead of imagining him on a meadow, make the giant rabbit run a horse race!

Now, there’s an image you won’t forget anytime soon!

But, still, it’s just an image! What about a list of things or a speech? It has to be a bit more complicated than that!

Well, only a bit! You can still use your giant rabbit, but now you should place him somewhere! You see, evolution is hardwired into your brain.  And ancient men were particularly good at remembering routes. They had no choice, in fact. Use this to your benefit!

Here’s how it goes:

If you, say, have to remember a list, in your imagination, place each of the items on the list (transformed through the magic of the SEE method) in different rooms of your home. And pick them up one by one.

Horsley remembered 10,000 digits of π by using this method. Surely, you can remember the eight items your wife told you to buy this morning, right?

Key Lessons from “Unlimited Memory”

1.      Stop Multitasking and Start Focusing
2.      Use Few Simple Methods to Remember Things
3.      Repetition is the Mother of Studying

Stop Multitasking and Start Focusing

It’s likely that in some not too distant future, humans will evolve to be able to multitask. But, for now, multitasking does you no good. In fact, according to neuroscientists, multitasking both slows your brain by 50 percent and increases the chances of a mistake by at least as much.

And the culprit?

Facebook. Twitter. Instagram.

So, it’s not that you’re not remembering. You’re just not concentrated enough to first learn the things in order to remember them.

Use Few Simple Methods to Remember Things

“Unlimited Memory” is filled with many useful acronyms. How can it not be? It’s a book about memory and acronyms are great mnemonics. Here are the three most interesting ones. You should use to remember things better:

  • PIC. Purpose, interest, and curiosity. In order to be interested and curious about something, first attach some purpose to it. Then, you’ll be able to remember it.
  • SEE. Senses, exaggerate, energize. If you want to imprint something deep inside your brain, then remember it in 3D (include all of your senses), exaggerate its portrait, and put it into action.
  • CCCC. Concentrate, create, connect, continue. This is especially good for remembering names. Create something out of It SEE-style, then connect it to a person-specific quality, and then use it continually. For example, you can easily remember this author’s name (Horsley) if you are creative with it and connect it to the author’s whitish hair (a white-maned horse fighting Bruce Lee?).

Repetition is the Mother of Studying

No need to delve into this further! Unless you’re the Rain Man, even if you’re capable of remembering everything, you’re bound to forget all of it in 2 years max unless you repeat it. After all, it’s not like you remember anything – anything – from high school!

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“Unlimited Memory” Quotes

You don’t need a special talent or pill to have brilliant concentration or a great memory. All you need is a willingness to learn, a method, and self-discipline. Click To Tweet Consider living without your memory for one week. You wouldn’t be capable of doing anything. Click To Tweet Your mind never wanders away; it only moves towards more interesting things. Click To Tweet Learn to practice peace because if you have no attention you have no retention. Click To Tweet Self-discipline is not self-deprivation. It is about raising your standards and going for and being more. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

As you would expect, “Unlimited Memory” is a book filled with practical advice. So, no theory here, and no complicated factsheets. Many of the strategies actually work: we tried most of them. And when they result in something as essential as memory boosting, you’ve got to give the author more than a credit. Highly recommended.

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The End of Jobs Summary

The End of Jobs SummaryMoney, Meaning, and Freedom Without the 9-to-5

Globalization destroys and rebuilds everything that is being done up to now.

In this book summary, we sympathize with Taylor and share his thoughts on this intriguing, unresolved question.

Who Should Read “The End of Jobs”? And Why?

Sometimes we fail to identify the reason that causes economic downfall. We as a society have come to an understanding that the economy is not developed on “facts” but predictions.

If you are more of a passionate knowledge seeker, “The End of Jobs” will not suit your thinking patterns, but if you are more on the risky side, get ready for a bumpy ride.

About Taylor Pearson

Taylor PearsonTaylor Pearson is young and eager “job” expert, who held meetings with entrepreneurs from all around the world.

He displays the same techniques, not paying too much attention to the industry or size of the company.

“The End of Jobs Summary”

Perhaps, there is not a single soul on this planet, that hasn’t been told that school is the only route to getting a job. As far as Taylor Pearson is concerned, these criteria must not be taken for granted – as we will expand on this, later on.

Regardless of the reasons, the proper education act as a beacon of hope in the “harsh” society.

But what has inflicted change?

Under the feet of globalization, everything trembles. Don’t get your hopes up, because even though the digital age offers bigger and better possibilities, this often comes at a high price. We can forget about financial security since the days of working half a century for a single company are also long gone.

From an economic standpoint, it’s relevant whether we are prosperous or not. The recession has been an integral part of growth, ever since we felt the destructive power of the Great Depression.

If you lack the expertise to contribute to this never-ending debate, no worries – listening to Goldratt is just as good as reading a book in order to understand every system. Think of it this way, whatsoever built is designed for some purpose, but it also draws the strings of restriction.

A huge part of the human evolvement is being put in several highly-effective systems, pick one, analyze it and you’ll have a clue of what’s been discussed.

In the middle of the expanding agricultural revolution when English landlords including the King protested against the Pope, they subconsciously marked the beginning of a new way of life.

How did the Vatican lose all the power in Britain?

Whosoever controlled the lands, controlled the economy. When King Henry VIII deprived Rome of the lands and pointed himself as the head of the church, the Pope lost its reign.

Three centuries afterward, European bankers, started growing in both numbers and domination. Even the kings, couldn’t go to war or implement reforms without their approval. As you can see; the limits are prone to change.  

This trend continued before during and after the devastating WWII. The economic boom, which started after the defeat of Nazi Germany, set the foundations for a new system. In such regards, the economy established a new group of job-seekers and caused an unpredictable turn of events.

People born in the U.S. somewhere between the 50s and 60s can give you their thoughts on the vast economic expansion and upside potential in those days. They even received a nickname – the baby boomers.

It was like, a job awaited you behind every corner – literally. No period in history was as prosperous and beneficial for the citizens as that one. According to many statistical factors, the demand for qualified workers and intellectuals grew almost twice the population in the second half of the 20th century.

The market growth followed by a competent workforce created the previously mentioned baby boomers. From today’s standpoint, people remember the era of –  get a college degree and wait for a call.

The next day you are at your desk. Such an example, serve as an illustration and reflects how easy it was to get the desired job with the right credentials.

When the medieval nobles and lords, demanded from the people to work on their lands in order to receive their fair share of the outcome, they obeyed. Their mindset was fixed on survival. As soon as someone created a new system, an entrepreneurial spirit emerged, and innovation took place, all shifted.

The economy has always been at the mercy of creativity and ingenuity. In the 21st century, each entrepreneur lacking the “aha-moment” is more prone to failure than the one who always thinks of an improvement.

Even the employers have a broader range of information, including the ability to hire experts from various industries for lower wage expectations. It’s beneficial both ways. 

Key Lessons from “The End of Jobs

1.      The era of having a secure job position is over.
2.      The thing of the future
3.      Ever-lasting improvements and enhancement

The era of having a secure job position is over.

If you don’t understand the market fluctuations and believe that your job is 100% secure, you are doomed to failure.

The economy doesn’t provide extra space for people who are not aware of its inconsistency and modified essence.  

The thing of the future

For instance, if you plan to hire a programmer, it will cost you around 70 – 90, 000 $ a year. However, with the help of technology, you can now consider lowering your costs by hiring experts from other countries who can do the same amount of work for a third of the price.  

Ever-lasting improvements and enhancement

Costless communication via Skype or other devices can sidestep all geographical boundaries. Talented people are no longer stuck to work and operate in their area since the age of possibilities knocks at our doors.

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“The End of Jobs” Quotes

While our first instinct is usually attempting to push harder, it’s more valuable to figure out where to push. Click To Tweet Because of the qualitative and structural changes to the economy, it’s getting harder to find jobs, they’re riskier, and they’re less profitable. Click To Tweet If you do things that are safe but feel risky, you gain a significant advantage in the marketplace. Click To Tweet A few major opportunities, clearly recognizable as such, will usually come to one who continuously searches and waits, with a curious mind loving diagnosis involving multiple variables. And then all that is required is a willingness to… Click To Tweet Happiness is a condition which can be prepared for and cultivated. It’s that ability to control our own inner experience that will determine the quality of our lives. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

Despite your current standings and progress, we firmly believe that “The End of Jobs” is a book that opposes the necessary machinery for reaching success.

If you are open to grasp the intention of an unbiased investigation, then don’t hesitate.

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Lean In Summary

Lean In SummaryWomen, Work, and the Will to Lead

Sometimes it is not easy being a woman. This is especially true when it comes to the workplace.

We are all aware that many women do not get the same treatment as men, although they are doing the same jobs.

In our summary of “Lean In” we let you know why that is the case, and what you can do to change the treatment you get.

Who Should Read “Lean In”? And Why?

The talk that surrounded Facebook Coo’s “Lean In” which targets women in the workplace started even before the book was published.

Many of those that critiqued it worried that a successful billionaire executive would blame for workplace inequality on lower income, worker-class women. They expected that she would not make a distinction between educated women like herself, and those that did not have the same privileges.

However, their worries were unfounded and premature. We find that Sandberg’s “Lean In” pushes all the right buttons when it comes to the subject it touches.

We recommend it to all women who strive to be successful and fight for equal rights in the workplace.

About Sheryl Sandberg

Sheryl SandbergSheryl Sandberg worked in the US Treasury Department, and was a vice president of global online sales and operations at Google, before becoming the COO of Facebook.

“Lean In Summary”

Sheryl Sandberg was a Harvard graduate who worked for her mentor, Lawrence Summers. First, she worked at the World Bank, and after she earned an MBA and put in a year with McKinsey, she became his head of staff when he was US Treasury secretary.

She was Google’s VP of worldwide online sales and operations before getting to be a head operating officer at Facebook.

She uses Facebook as a platform for this book.

“Lean In”’s open commotion that surrounded it pre and post its publication, demonstrated a pivotal point:

The role of women in the work environment is an inconceivably emotional topic.

It sure as hell pushes some buttons. Take, for example, the strain amongst stay-at-home and working moms, the professional penalties that women pay for giving time to their families, sexism in the working environment, and corporate foreswearing of the way that monetary concerns and child-bearing limits women’s’ options.

Furthermore, “Lean In” also underlines on one of Sandberg’s declarations:

The shortage of females in the highest levels of leadership puts the couple of women who get to positions of power under in-depth examination, transforming them into representatives for their whole gender, regardless of whether they want to play that part or not.

As an illustrative case, let’s take note of the firestorm of negative feedback aimed at the president and CEO of Yahoo, Marissa Mayer after she declared that she would do her job all throughout her maternity leave.

Sandberg herself admits that she was initially reluctant to talk about gender orientated issues, realizing that doing as such would put her at the focal point of a brutally unforgiving spotlight.

Her friends and acquaintances cautioned her that she would be pigeonholed as another feminist official as opposed to being known as Facebook’s COO.

In addition, talking from the stage made her powerless against similar reactions pointed at any woman who decides to call attention to the imbalance in the work environment.

In other words, close-minded men may start seeing her as a caricature of a humorless, man-hating female, who is merely looking for special treatment in the workplace or threatening taking legal action.

Key Lessons from “Lean In”:

1.      Climbing Leadership Ladder
2.      Are You Blocking Your Own Progress?
3.      Suggestions to Overcome Internal Barriers

Climbing Leadership Ladder

The core issue of Sandberg’s book: the lack of females in positions of high authority in business and government, although a bit controversial, is undeniable.

The provided information says a lot.

In 2007, women held somewhere around 17% of seats on US corporate boards of directors. Similar numbers are present in government as well. At the point when Sandberg’s book initially came out, women held just 18% of the seats in the US Congress.

Sanders merely asks: Why is that the case?

As a response, she determines and studies the obstacles that keep the executive suite out of women’s reach.

The sad truth is that the conditions that foil women’s ascent to the top still exist.

Each day, in workplaces around the world, women confront segregation, sexism, and badgering.

The absence of alternatives for child care constrains them to pick between their families and their professions.

Moreover, Sandberg says, women have a more difficult time than men discovering mentors, and they should work harder to win the same acknowledgment.

Are You Blocking Your Own Progress?

Sandberg raises a caution of the self-made limits women put in front of themselves. However, while doing that she does not miss to mention that she was liable for similar conduct.

Women are not in possession of enough self-confidence and are inclined to underestimate themselves. They are less decisive, as well, and feel more hesitant to self-promote and negotiate for themselves as opposed to their male partners.

Lastly, they want people to like them, which, as Sandberg clarifies, can hamper their power.

Suggestions to Overcome Internal Barriers

Sandberg urges the woman to sit at the table, lean in and speak up. According to her, women should not be afraid to make sure their voices are heard. She does not stop at the workplace. She further advised women to make real partners out of their partners and try to develop an equal distribution of labor at home.

Lastly, until you decide that it is time to leave, stay fully engaged.

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“Lean In” Quotes

What would you do if you weren't afraid? Click To Tweet Done is better than perfect. Click To Tweet In the future, there will be no female leaders. There will just be leaders. Click To Tweet We cannot change what we are not aware of, and once we are aware, we cannot help but change. Click To Tweet There's a special place in hell for women who don't help other women. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

In “Lean In” Sandberg gives women some excellent advice for fighting internal barriers, but a significant portion of it any informed, a feminist social scientist could provide.

Additionally, she fails to mention the benefits corporations get whenever they add a bigger percentage of women to their top levels. Readers may also feel that they did not get enough personal strategies to achieve female equality.

However, Sandberg’s style is personal and “Lean In” is a book filled with anecdotes. Hence, the book is much more than just a statement of facts and formal corporate analysis.

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